Hyundai KIA Kappa G4L engine
|Hyundai / KIA|
|Manufacturer:||Hyundai / KIA|
|Style:||Row end cylinder / four-cylinder|
|Engines:||1.0 L (998 cc)
1.2 L (1197 cc)
1.25 L (1248 cc)
|Cylinder firing order:||1-3-2 / 1-3-4-2|
Kappa is a series of three- and four-cylinder gasoline engines from Hyundai / KIA with two overhead camshafts and four valves per cylinder. The engines are built in Hwaseong ( South Korea ) and Irrungattukatoi ( India ). Engine codes:G4LA
The Kappa series is built since July 15, 2008 as a technically more complex supplement to the Epsilon series , recognizable this is about one and a half kilograms lower weight with larger displacement. With 82 kg dry weight, this was the lightest in the segment of microcars according to the manufacturer . The 2011 added three-cylinder is a bit lighter with 71.4 kg. The development started in 2006 after completion of the Gamma series and cost 421 million dollars.
Engine block and cylinder head are made of aluminum . All three engines have a uniform bore of 71.0 mm, the 1.2-liter variant is intended only for India.
As in the Gamma series, the engine control unit is supplied by Bosch. It has two 16-bit chips that operate at 32 MHz.
The camshafts are driven by a maintenance-free timing chain , the ancillaries of a V-ribbed belt , which regularly has to be replaced every 160,000 km and no belt tensioner needed.The valves are operated via roller rocker arms. One side pushes the valve down, the abutment on the other side sits on a hydro lifter , which is flush-mounted by a built-in spring. This form of valve clearance compensation is maintenance-free, even an inspection is not provided for in the maintenance plan. Wear would be signaled by a ticking sound.The Kappa series is a simplified version of the gamma series. In addition to the engine cover, the camshaft CVVT has been removed for this first series. The engine breaker simultaneously covers the timing chain and thus saves a component, weight and costs.Like the Gamma range, the Kappa series also received a crankshaft slightly offset from the cylinder axis plane. The pistons are constantly pressed by the rotational movement of the crankshaft to a cylinder wall. A misalignment of the position now allows it to slide down more smoothly in the ignition phase. This reduces friction in the engine and thus the consumption, but also the vibrations. Toyota is similar in Prius . The pistons were also friction-reduced with a MoS 2 coating, just as the chromium-nitride coating acts on the piston rings. The latter appeared previously in the Tau V8 .
The used M12 ' Long Reach' spark plugs create a larger space for water cooling on the cylinder due to their longer narrow shaft. This decreases its temperature and with it the knock tendency of the mixture. The valves could also be increased, which allows the air to flow faster - a high-performance effect at high speeds. Between the cylinder walls a motor block integrated lead frame for vibration reduction was inserted. The better thermal conductivity of the aluminum, the operating temperature is reached faster and avoid friction by unevenly extended cylinder.Detailed ideas are in the funnel-shaped valve spring, which in turn saves weight and, by its less strong spring pressure, the camshaft energy when opening. Next to it, the roller rocker arm reduces the friction of the hydraulic valve clearance compensation , which in turn permanently reduces the valve clearance to zero and thus avoids ticking noises. However, in contrast to mechanical bucket tappets, attention must increasingly be paid to oil quality and level. If the Hydrolifter is partially filled with air due to low oil levels, for example, it can not compensate for the play and there will be ticking noises ( cf.). The combination of hydraulic lifters with roller drag levers is the most frictionless and most expensive form of valve actuation in production. It is also the only one for which Hyundai / KIA no longer provides for inspections - it is maintenance-free.Consumption is according to the manufacturer 5.2 liters, which are also achieved in economical driving . In 20 percent more power it consumes so much the same as a 1.1-L Epsilon -Motor.
Between October 2010 and the end of the year, the manufacturer added a three-cylinder engine and equipped the range with variable valve timing. This started the Kappa 2 series. After the debut of the 1,2-L variant for India, the premiere of the other engines followed in Paris . They were launched in 2011, during which they also reached Europe.For the 1.2-liter engine the simplest variable valve control of the manufacturer was used under a new name. The VTVT system (otherwise CVVT) varies according to the opening timing of the intake valves by turning the camshaft. The "Variable Timing Valve Train" thus has an influence on the overlap of the valve opening between inlet and outlet side, but not on the valve lift and thus the opening duration . It is therefore comparable to the single-VANOS BMW. Apart from a better torque in the lower speed range, it reduces above all the nitrogen oxide valuesby the exhaust gas recirculation effect of a large overlap is used - this already exhaust gas is sucked back into the combustion chamber. Because the VTVT is installed as standard, it is not always listed, but is recognizable by the engine series. This is in the target market India to prominent mention.
The 1.25-L engine received a D-CVVT (Dual-Continuously Variable Valve Timing) called intake and exhaust camshaft timing. It increases the power of 77 to 86 hp, and differs only by the additional variation of the outlet side of the VTVT the 1.2 L engine.
The 1.0-liter three-cylinder came with this series new and makes 69 hp. He is the most technically complex of the series. Apart from the D-CVVT this engine is provided with a variable intake manifold (Variable Induction System). This takes into account the pulsation of the air in the intake manifold, which is caused by the opening and closing of the valves. If these under- and over-pressure impulses find a rhythmically adapted way into the cylinder, a slight resonance charging effect develops. For this purpose is switched with a flap between a short air at low and high speeds and a longer air guide at medium speeds, resulting in a consistently high torque. For this engine was also introduced in mid-2009 stop-start automatic transmissionIdle stop & go adjusted. Development partner at the ISG was Bosch, whose ECUs already work in several engine series from Hyundai / KIA. To reduce consumption, the friction of other components has been reduced. For example, the contact surfaces of the valve rockers actuated by the camshaft received a diamond-like carbon layer, the piston and piston ring coatings remained the same as in all Kappa engines all these measures hardly strengthen the engine beyond the level of its predecessor Epsilon iRDE 2 - but reduces CO 2 emissions to 99 g / km in the standard test cycle . Real consumption values are still pending.
A turbocharged version of the 1.0-liter engine debuted at the 2011 Seoul Motor Show with 110 hp and 137 Nm between 1500 and 4500 rpm. Their launch in small and micro cars is scheduled for June 2012. consumption figures are pending.A turbo version of the 1.2-liter engine with direct injection is scheduled for early 2012 in the KIA Rio third generation. At 130 hp and 190 Nm, it should emit 111 g / km CO 2 . This would correspond to 4.5 to 5 liters of petrol per 100 km.
Kappa 2 BiFuel and FFV
The 1.0-liter engine debuted at the same time as the petrol variant in a LPG ("BiFuel", "LPG") and ethanol ("FFV") variant.
The LPG version will be offered as a diesel alternative in Europe. In addition to a 35-liter auto gas tank, these vehicles contain a 10-liter gas tank to navigate areas without gas refueling points. However, since microcars are mostly used close to where they live, the availability of LPG on unknown long-haul routes is of little importance. Changes in the engine are likely to include increased compression (about 12: 1 instead of 10.5: 1) and consequent revision of the pistons and valves. A higher compression uses more fuel energy (here about 8%) and is also made possible by the LPG knock resistance . However, its energy density is 25% below that of gasoline, so that an additional consumption remains. In the standard test cycle of the Kia Picanto it is even 38%.
The F lexi F uel V ehicle version is designed for the use of 85% ethanol in gasoline and is offered in Brazil and Paraguay. Every 1992 Hyundai / KIA gasoline engine has been suitable for the 10% ethanol content in the European E10 fuel.
|series||engine code||Displacement (cm³)||Stroke × bore (mm)||Power (PS) at (1 / min)||Torque (Nm) at (1 / min)||cylinder||compression|
|Kappa||1197||75.6 × 71.0||75 at 5200||112 at 4000||4||10.5|
|Kappa||G4LA||1248||78.8 × 71.0||77/78 at 6000||116/119 2 at 4000||4||10.5|
|Kappa||G3LA||998||84.0 × 71.0||69 at 6200||95 at 3500||3||10.5|
|Kappa 2 BiFuel||B3LA||998||84.0 × 71.0||82 at 6400||94 at 3400||3|
|Kappa 2 FFV||998||84.0 × 71.0||80 at 6200||100 at 4500||3|
|Kappa 2||1197||75.6 × 71.0||80 at 6000||112 at 4000||4||10.5|
|Kappa 2||G4LA||1248||78.8 × 71.0||86 at 6000||121 at 4000||4||10.5|
- i10 PA
- G3LA (69 hp): 2011-today (worldwide only in Switzerland, Great Britain, Italy and Hungary)
- 1.20 L (75 HP): 2008-2010 (India)
- 1.20 L (80 PS): 2010-today (India)
- G4LA (77/78 hp): 2008-2011 (Europe)
- G4LA (86 hp): 2011-today (Europe)
- i20 PB
- G4LA (77/78 hp): 2008-2012 (Europe)
- G4LA (86 hp): 2012-today (Europe)
- 1.20 L (80 PS): 2010-today (India)
- 1.20 L G4LA (75 HP): 2014-today (Europe)
- 1.25 L G4LA (84 hp): 2014-today (Europe)
- Picanto TA
- G3LA, G4LA: 2011-today
- Kappa 2 BiFuel and FFV: from autumn 2011
- Rio UB
- G4LA: 2011-today (Europe)