Hyundai KIA Lambda six-cylinder engine
|Hyundai / KIA|
|Manufacturer:||Hyundai / KIA|
|Style:||60 ° V|
|Engines:||3.0 L (2999 cc), 3.3 L (3342 cc), 3.5 L (3470 cc), 3.8 L (3778 cc)|
|Cylinder firing order:||1-2-3-4-5-6|
The Lambda series is a six-cylinder , four-overhead-camshaft ( QOHC ) gasoline engine with four valves per cylinder. The engines are built in Asan ( South Korea ) and Montgomery ( Alabama )
The engine block and cylinder head are made of aluminum . The 3.3-liter edition opens the series with a bore of 92 mm and a stroke of 83.8 mm and 184 kg dry weight. The medium version with 3.5 liter capacity was supplemented only with the Lambda II series and extends the stroke to 87 mm. The largest variant also extends the bore to 96 mm and increases the weight by only two and a half to 186.6 kg. The Lambda II series reduced the weight by several kilograms, precise details have not been made. The idle speed of the lambda engines ranges from 620 (3.3 liters), 650 (3.8 liter Lambda II) to 720 (3.8 liter lambda) revolutions per minute.All Lambda series engines are controlled by an electronic accelerator pedal .The power transmission from the crankshaft to the cylinder head by means of maintenance-free timing chain , the ancillaries are driven by a serpentine belt. For this every 50,000 km or 24 months an inspection is provided, an exchange only when determined need.
The valves are actuated by mechanical bucket tappets without overlapping plates (hence " shimless mechanical bucket tappets").They reduce the resistance for the cam compared to hydraulic bucket tappets . Like these, they are maintenance-free, but less expensive and less dependent on good oil viscosity . Over the years, the surface of the plunger and cam is removed, thus reducing the stroke of the valve in the cylinder chamber. This allows less air to flow in, whereupon the engine automatically reduces the amount of petrol and thus its performance. This is accompanied by an audible ticking sound , because the cam no longer constantly rests on the bucket tappet, but this only once per revolution reached - the advent generates the ticking noise. This may disappear by the expansion in the engine is warm, but that's lash thus become too large. Its inspection is scheduled in the maintenance plan of every 95,000 km, but maintenance only on demand. In this, the removed material would be offset by a new, slightly longer tappets. The exchange may possibly be merged with that of the spark plugs (160,000 km).
The Lambda series was developed until 2004 in Hwaseong and completed the replacement of the Sigma series, whose upper spectrum was used for example in the KIA Opirus until 2006. The sizes of under 3 liters capacity were already with the 1998 Delta rangereplaced. The Sigma series was based on a Mitsubishi gray-black design, which dates back to the eighties, and was developed in parallel by Hyundai and Mitsubishi.
The engines have a CVVT named intake side camshaft adjustment. This has only an influence on the overlap of the valve opening from the inlet and outlet side (the opening time on the input side is variable), but not on the valve lift and thus the opening duration. It is therefore comparable to the BMW single-VANOS technology . In addition to a better torque in the lower speed range, it reduces above all the nitrogen oxide values, by the exhaust gas recirculation effect of a large overlap is used - this already sucked exhaust gas is sucked back into the combustion chamber.
Lambda engines have a variable intake system (Variable Intake System). This takes into account the pulsation of the air in the intake manifold, which is caused by the opening and closing of the valves. If these under- and over-pressure impulses find their rhythm-adapted way into the engine compartment, a slight resonance charging effect arises, similar to a turbocharger . To achieve it opens at low and high speeds suitable for this purpose, short air. At medium speeds, the longer air duct is used by means of a flap, resulting in a consistently high torque. To reduce friction, the pistons were given a MoS 2 coating.
The V-orientation of the two three-cylinder benches has the advantage of lesser length compared to straight six cylinders , as installed by BMW . In addition, the crankshaft hereby only has to be half as long as each crank pin drives two pistons. The disadvantage of the split on two benches are double components at the other end of the piston - in the cylinder head about four instead of two camshafts actuate the valves, overall, so the maintenance costs increase slightly. Another component is needed for smoothness, since at high speeds the three-cylinder banks emit more vibrations. This helps a balance shaft from , which rotates counter to the crankshaft at the same speed. There remains a low second order free mass torque, as in in-line four-cylinder engines.
In 2008, the series was revised and thus the Lambda II series, completed in 2010 by a 3.5-L version. This weighs less weight reduction than the 3.3-L version of the first Lambda series. This was made possible by the use of plastic for the variable intake manifold , the cylinder head cover and the oil filter housing, as well as the cooling water temperature controller. The revised crankshaft also saves weight by using five instead of the previous eight balancing weights. To reduce friction, the MoS 2 coating of the pistons was supplemented by a diamond-like carbon layer on the contact surfaces of the tappets .The intake camshaft CVVT control has been extended by one for the output side, similar to the BMW Double VANOS technology. The now D (ual) -CVVT named system contributes to improved performance. The variable intake system (Variable Intake System) has been extended by one level to three. He takes better account of the pulsation of the air in the intake manifold, which is caused by the opening and closing of the valves. If these under- and over-pressure impulses find their rhythm-adapted way into the engine compartment, a slight resonance charging effect arises, similar to a turbocharger To achieve this, air passages which are distributed over the engine speed range open in each case, resulting in a consistently high torque.
To reduce emissions, the cooling of the exhaust gas side in the cylinder block has been improved so that leaner mixtures are made possible. These cause by their excess of oxygen higher temperatures, which would burden the downstream components in the exhaust system. The larger water channels avoid this.
Lambda II RS
Although all three displacement sizes of the lambda series share the same external dimensions is the largest displacement variant nevertheless hochbauend for use in sports cars such as the Hyundai Genesis Coupe . Rear-wheel drive - - Therefore, the 3.8 L-version for this vehicle has been adjusted, from which the name " R ear wheel drive S results ports" of the motor. Both engines of the coupe have thus been developed exclusively for this model.
The decisive five centimeters in height were gained by redesigning the intake and exhaust tracts. In addition, the diameter of the intake side was increased and the shape of the exhaust manifoldchanged so that it creates less back pressure, so now both sides contribute to improved air circulation. Another performance-enhancing effect is a "sharper camshaft", ie a CVVT camshaft profile, in which the valves open earlier and close later, thus permitting more fuel mixture. Due to the subsequent closing, however, the compression remains at 10.4 and does not rise to the level of the other Lambda II engines. By CVVT on inlet and outlet side, however, the other disadvantages can be largely compensated for, for example, at idle a normal profile applies and its speed therefore does not need to be increased Since the resulting extra power is available primarily at high speeds, the pistons are no longer fixed, but flexible (full-floating) stored, which reduces their friction on the cylinder. At the same time a fine oil mist is sprayed on the cylinder base, which also has a cooling effect, as the longer spark plugs, which create a larger space for the water cooling on the cylinder through their longer, narrow shaft. The injectors now deliver up to seven percent more fuel to deliver better airflow.The cylinder wall was exacerbated by two to 24 mm, the crankshaft bearings to also two to 25 mm. The engine control has been reprogrammed and has more connection pins. Engine and vehicle have been offered in Europe since November 2010, in the US since spring 2009.
A longer stroke to 4.1 L enlarged and charged by means of HKS-T04Z turbocharger variant of this engine was used in the Hyundai Genesis PM 580 for the Pikes Peak Race 2010. With 775 hp and 1020 Nm Rhys Millen announced the recapture of his 1994 set in a modified Toyota Celica by his father record of 10 minutes and 4 seconds. This was undercut by Nobuhiro Tajima in 2007 with a Suzuki XL7 by three seconds. In 2009, however, the driver managed the victory in two-wheel-driven time trial in a modified Hyundai Genesis Coupe . The body of the PM 580 is not based on the Genesis Coupe but on the Jaguar JP1 Palmer, a successful Le Mansrace car with a Jaguar V6 engine. The weight of the vehicle is about 862 kg due to the use of carbon fiber reinforced plastic .
Lambda II GDI
In April 2010, a direct-injection variant of the 3.3 L-Lambda II was presented at the Beijing Auto Show . The end of 2010 was followed by a 3.0-liter engine of the same technology, which at the same time completed the engine capacity in turn down. It serves the replacement of the Mu -V6 with 2.7-liter displacement, which is still based on the first Hyundai V6 series from 1998. The two Lambda GDI debuted in the Hyundai Grandeur of the fifth generation . However, information about these engines has been published sparingly so that the required data for a corresponding row in the table below is missing.In conventional injection for gasoline engines, the injection valve is located in the intake manifold upstream of the intake valve. With increasing speeds, however, the opening time of the valve is always shorter, and thus the time window for introducing the fuel. In the direct injection is therefore injected directly into the cylinder. Hyundai used as most GDI competitors for homogeneous stoichiometricmixture formation and dispensed with an inhomogeneous stratified charge (stratified fuel charge). The latter is associated with systemic disadvantages, such as significantly increased particulate matter. It starts with a pilot injection and ignition to set the piston in motion. During its downward movement follows the thrusting, actual fuel injection and ignition. This more precise, direct-cylinder cooling fuel delivery increased the cylinder's compression ratio from 10.6 to 11.5. This leads to a fuel saving of around five percent and also causes a higher exhaust gas temperature. This benefits the faster-warming catalyst, whose cold start phase could be halved to 40 seconds. The higher injection pressure of 150 bar (without GDI about 5 bar) also causes a more homogeneous fuel atomization and thus a cleaner combustion. He goes along with a system typical Tick noise.
The friction-reducing measures of the Lambda II series are now supported by a chromium-nitride coating on the piston rings. The pistons themselves retain their MoS 2 coating, as do the bucket tappets their diamond-like carbon coating . As in the Lambda II RS, the piston is no longer fixed, but flexibly (full-floating) mounted, which also reduces friction and increases the pressure resistance by 30%. Likewise, a fine oil mist is sprayed directly onto the bottom of the cylinder, the cooling effect of which has a gentle effect on the material and reduces the tendency to knock off of the GDI-compressed mixture.
|series||engine code||Displacement (cm³)||Stroke × bore (mm)||Power (PS) at (1 / min)||Torque at (1 / min)||cylinder||compression|
|lambda||G6DB (-AT)||3342||83.8 × 92.0||235/242/247 at 6000||304/307 at 3500/4500||6||10.4|
|lambda||G6DA (-AT)||3778||87.0 × 96.0||250/260/266 at 6000||344/350 at 3500/4500||6||10.4|
|Lambda II||L6DB||2999||75.2 × 92.0||235 at 6000||281 at 4500||6|
|Lambda II||G6DB (-AC)||3342||83.8 × 92.0||250/260/262 at 6000/6200/6200||310/317 at 4500||6||10.6|
|Lambda II||G6DC (-AC)||3470||87.0 × 92.0||277/290 at 6300/6600||335/338 at 5000||6||10.6|
|Lambda II||G6DA (-AC)||3778||87.0 × 96.0||276/283/290 at 6200||363/358/358 at 4500||6||10.6|
|Lambda II RS||G6DA (-AC) / |
|3778||87.0 × 96.0||303/306 at 6300||361/362 at 4700||6||10.4|
|Lambda II GDI||G6DG||2999||75.2 × 92.0||270 at 6400||310 at 5000||6||11.5|
|Lambda II GDI||G6DH||3342||83.8 × 92.0||300 at 6400||348 at 5200||6||11.5|
|Lambda II GDI||G6DJ||3778||87.0 × 96.0||334 at 6400||395 at 5100||6||11.5|
Listed are the world-wide installed Lambda engines for each model, not all countries are offered in all listed configurations.
- Entourage EP
- G6DA-AT (250 hp): 2006-2009
- Equus VI
- G6DA-AC (290 hp): 2009-today
- Genesis Bra
- G6DB-AC, G6DA-AC (262, 290 hp): 2008-2011
- G6DH, G6DJ (300, 334 hp): 2011-today
Hyundai Genesis Coupe
- Genesis Coupe BK
- G6DA-AC (306 hp): 2009-2012
- G6DJ (347 hp): 2012-today
- Grandeur TG
- G6DB-AT, G6DA-AT (235, 260 hp): 2005-2009
- G6DB-AC, G6DA-AC (260, 283 hp): 2010
- Grandeur HG
- G6DG, G6DH (270, 300 hp): 2011-today
Hyundai Santa Fe
- Santa Fe CM
- G6DB-AT (242 hp): 2006-2009
- G6DC-AC (277 hp): 2009-today (in Europe from facelift 2009 no more six-cylinder)
- Sonata NF
- G6DB-AT (235 hp): 2006-2008
- G6DB-AC (250 hp): 2008-2010
- Veracruz EN
- G6DA-AT (260 hp): 2007-today
- Borrego HM
- G6DA-AC (276 hp): 2008-today
- Cadenza VG
- G6DC-AC (290 hp): 2010-today
- L6DB (235 hp): 2010-today
- G6DG (270 hp): 2011-today
- Carnival VQ
- G6DA-AT (242 hp): 2006-2009
- G6DC-AC (271 hp): 2010-2011
- Opirus GH
- G6DB-AT, G6DA-AT (247, 266 hp): 2006-2009
- G6DB-AC, G6DA-AC (260, 283 hp): 2009-2011
- Sorento BL
- G6DB-AT, G6DA-AT (242, 260 hp): 2007-2009
- Sorento XM
- G6DC-AC (277 hp): 2009-today