Hyundai KIA J diesel engines
|Hyundai / KIA|
|Manufacturer:||Hyundai / KIA|
|Engines:||2.7 L (2665 cc) /
2.7 L (2700 cc)
2.9 L (2902 cc)
3.0 L (2957 cc)
The J series are four-cylinder diesel engines from Hyundai / KIA, which have three different fundamentals . Used in the Hyundai Terracan.KIA Carnival,Besta,Pregio,K2700,K2900,K3000,JT Engine codes JS.JT J2,J3
Apart from the 2.9 L engine, the engines have indirect injection and an overhead camshaft ( SOHC ), which operates two valves per cylinder . The 2.9 L version has two overhead camshafts ( DOHC ) and 4 valves per cylinder. In 2001 she changed from direct injection by means of distributor pump to common-rail injection . It also has a turbocharger in all years of construction . These features made them the only variant of the series that was also used in cars. The engines are manufactured by KIA in South Korea .
The engine block consists of gray cast iron , its cylinder head made of light metal . The displacement-related piston size and thus mass makes a balance shaft necessary for smooth running . This is done twice in J3 (2.9 L), it is not mentioned in JS, J2 and JT, so it was probably omitted here. The balance shafts in J3 run in opposite directions to the crankshaft and thus reduce noise, the cause of which would be energy losses in the single-digit horsepower range, which are also avoided .
The power transmission from the crankshaft to the camshaft takes place by means of a toothed belt .Replacement is provided for the 2.9L engine of all 90,000 for the 185 hp variant of all 160,000 kilometers For the other variants, the manual must be used for lack of Internet sources. The weight and idling speed of the engines have not been published, with the exception of the 2.9L engine, which also applies to the type of valve actuation.
The valves of the 2.9L engine are operated by roller rocker arms, which act like a rocker . At the vertex of the cam is on. During its rotation, it pushes one side and thus two valves downwards, while on the other, the hydraulic tappet, which extends by means of a built-in spring, always lies flush . This form of valve clearance compensationis maintenance free. An erosion would be communicated by a ticking noise ( cf ).
For faster heating of the interior, only the Carnival III has a heater for the cooling water circuit . Other vehicles with J engines have a diesel-typical longer interior heating. The heater is mounted in the engine compartment and additionally heats the cooling water by burning diesel. As a result, the engine faster reaches the operating temperature and the heating of the interior of their effect. The component is an essential part of a heater , which could thus be retrofitted cost. Except for the A series is found in the other diesels of the manufacturer an electric heater in the air flow of the internal ventilation. He would require a complete heater kit, but heats the indoor air much faster.
Series 1 History
In 1992, the J-series started with the exactly 2.7 L JS. This engine was only a short time used and was not available in Europe. Because of its properties, information is therefore scarce, only its development by KIA is known . Since 1962, commercial vehicles with diesel engines have been produced there, but at first almost exclusively imported assemblies. It was not until the 1970s that self-developed parts were increasingly used, often to adapt license parts such as motors to their own requirements. The first self-developed diesel engine followed two years after buying the competitor's Asia Motors in 1976 . At the time of the merger with Hyundai finally reached the diesel range up to 19.7 L displacement .
In 1997 the JS was replaced by the J2 . This is based on the KIA under license produced 2.2L Mazda R2 . Like its two-liter variant RF, its engine block is almost identical to the gasoline-powered Mazda F-series. The 2.0L petrol engine FE was used among others in the Kia Clarus , the 2.2L-F2 about in the Ford Probe . The licensed R2 diesel was slightly modified from KIA, with the internal name S2 used simultaneously in separate vehicles . In 1995, this S2 was enlarged to 2.7 L and named J2, with the exception of the displacement determining almost all components remain structurally identical to the Mazda R2 .
Under the name JT, the J2 was also enlarged in 1997 to 3.0L (2957 cc).
In 1999, the J3 engine followed after five years of development. He is the only KIA engine that has been used in their vehicles after the merger with Hyundai. All others were only continued in KIA products and replaced with model changes with Hyundai engines. Their successor series are now being developed jointly.The beginning was made in 1992 by the JS , which used either antechamber or its successor vortex chamber injection . In the latter, the diesel is mixed more uniformly with air than in the prechamber. This burns the fuel more completely, which means less is needed and fewer pollutants are produced. However, at 70 nm, the most common particle size here is about half that of common-rail direct injection, and the number is about three times higher (see box for information on particles and their size-related effect) , In the vortex chamber, which is mounted obliquely above the cylinder, is pushed by the piston during compression up to two-thirds of the air. The spherical shape of the chamber swirls the incoming air. This is now the diesel injected, which is distributed more evenly than in a pre-chamber. The injection pressure is between 350 and 500 bar . The actual combustion then starts in the vortex chamber and passes into the cylinder, the piston is thereby brought into its downward movement and the mixture continues to pull into the cylinder . When worn, the swirl chamber can be replaced independently of the cylinder head. The fuel is delivered by means of a distributor pumptransported via a respective line to each of the four cylinder pre-chambers, in contrast to a common fuel line in the later, then named common rail method. A distributor pump from Doowon is used here . J2 and JTuse this vortex chamber method . As a result, they have reached the Euro 2 standard by market no later than 2005 . In Europe, therefore, they were only offered until the beginning of the Euro 3 obligation in 2001 .
The J3 initially also used a distributor pump (126 hp), but here one was from Bosch (type VE4) . But he changed from the prechamber to more modern direct injection . The injection pressure of this technique is a maximum of 1400 bar, that of the J3 was not named by the manufacturer . Just two years later, in 2001, the engine was converted to common-rail supply with 1500 bar (144 and 150 hp). This involves working with up to two pilot, one main injection and one post-injection , This subdivision improves the running culture as the combustion process in the cylinder is prolonged. In addition, smaller amounts of fuel are distributed better in the cylinder. This reduces soot and nitrogen oxides through less inhomogeneous areas of oxygen deficiency and excess. The post injection is used for the partial combustion of resulting soot particles. As a result, the engine also meets the Euro 3 standard for the first time . A Delphi DFP1 system was used. This was revised in 2005 for Hyundai (163 hp) and replaced at KIA (185 hp) by a DFP3 of the same manufacturer . Since this year, the motors operate bar 1600, the 185 hp version does not meet the Euro 4 standard, the 163 hp version, which is why it has been set with the validity of the beginning of 2006, The details of the 2008 supplemented 125 hp variant with common rail injection have not been released. This engine is used only in small trucks and has been compliant with the Euro 4 standard outside of Europe since the beginning . The production of vans and minibuses such as the Pregio was left to the latter manufacturer after the merger of KIA and Hyundai, using other engines .An oxidation catalyst was first mentioned in 2001 for the J3 with 144 hp and since then is standard for this engine .
This series has no nitrogen oxide reduction and by 2005 no soot filtering in the exhaust aftertreatment. An open soot filter is available only in the 2008 released J3 with 125 hp and the 2005 introduced J3 with 185 hp . Particulate filter retrofitting of the other engines of this series may possibly result in obtaining a better particulate plaque. Information on the respective vehicle offers the page Feinstaubplakette.de the associations TÜV and Dekra. Hyundai / KIA offers corresponding open filters . The function and efficiency of open filter systems shows this dossier by manufacturer .The effect of the oxidation catalytic converter and the non-electronic exhaust gas recirculation , which has become more precise over the years of production, corresponds to that of the D series .
Only the J3 engine was equipped with a turbocharger , this is consistent. Turbochargers deliver more oxygen into the cylinder space than would normally flow, allowing the engine to add more fuel. As a result, the performance increases to that of a larger displacement, the capacity can be provided by means of motor control even at low speeds. Thus, and by the smaller displacement friction losses are reduced, whereby the consumption is below that of a turbocharged, larger engine.Unknown is the turbocharger of the 125 hp version in the K2900. The 126 and 144 bhp variants for the KIA Carnival use an IHI KHF5-1A . This is a vendor-specific version of the RHF5. The latter is designed for an exhaust gas temperature of up to 950 ° C . Its turbine rotates at a maximum of 180,000 rpm and is suitable for powers up to 113 kW (154 hp). For the use of the J3 in Terracan (150 and 163 hp), the turbocharger was therefore adapted and named KHF5-2B .
For the most powerful version of the J3 with 185 hp, the collaboration with BorgWarner has begun . The turbocharger used here has a variable geometry (VGT). This minimizes the acceleration delay after pressing the accelerator pedal. The unvariable turbocharger is a resonance system that has to be excited first. Only a lot of exhaust gas accelerates the turbine in the exhaust stream so strong that it promotes the desired more air into the cylinder on the intake side. This deceleration is called "turbo lag" and must be taken into account during acceleration by the driver. As a remedy, a VGT system also accelerates low exhaust flows by directing them to the turbine through a temporarily narrowed airway. The VGT vanes They are mounted like on a wheeled excavator wheel and reach into the exhaust gas stream . They steer, folded almost to the circle, faster, or unfolded slow exhaust gas on the turbine of the turbocharger. This accelerates or slows down accordingly ( animation ). The latter is used at higher engine speeds, since there is hardly any need for more air. On the contrary, this would exceed the intended pressure in the cylinder and thus mechanically damage the engine components. The VGT control therefore usually makes, as with this engine, the pressure relief valve ( Wastegate) Unvariable turbocharger superfluous. Its electric vane control also allows a more precise control of the air flow, as with pneumatic adjustment. Hyundai identifies it with the designation e -VGT.
A more common problem with the J3 engine when used in the Kia Carnival before 2005 is defective cylinder head gaskets . This does not have its cause in the engine, but the lack of rust prevention of the rear heating pipes, which are integrated into the cooling water circuit. If these have a rust-induced leakage, cooling water drips onto the exhaust and evaporates. There are no traces of water underneath the car. However, due to the reduced amount of coolant, the engine now heats more and the concomitant abnormal expansion leaks the seal. The problem can be seen in the rapidly falling coolant level or rising oil level. The oil is diluted over the defective seal by penetrating cooling water and thus apparently increased., The problem was remedied by a change in corrosion protection in mid-2004 .
The 144 and 150 hp J3 engines (both equipped with the Delphi Common Rail DFP1 system) can fail injectors and the high-pressure fuel pump . The cause is metal shavings that dissolve in the fuel pump due to overheating, which can clog the injectors and also cause damage due to high pressure. As more diesel is supplied to the injectors for a more even fuel pressure than needed, excess diesel is returned to the tank and thus the chips can further damage the high pressure pump itself upon re-aspiration. Due to their small size they are not completely filtered out by the fuel filter. For repair, the high pressure pump, fuel lines, injectors, tank and fuel filter must be replaced . A cleaning could leave individual chips behind. The problem can be identified by a glowing check engine light in the tachometer or a heavy loss of power. The overheating of the fuel pump is caused by a lack of fuel flow and therefore a lack of cooling during idling after load phases (eg after overtaking, or longer inclines), Lack of fuel flow can also be caused by an un-serviced fuel filter or by the pumping of air when the tank is nearly empty. At low tank levels, the diesel also warms more, as it is compressed several times and returned to the tank. Its cooling effect decreases. The manufacturer changed in 2005 with an increase in engine power to 163 and 185 hp on a fuel system in which the pump for self-cooling idle more diesel circulates than would be necessary for the drive itself , Even a previous tank request with premature shutdown with low tank filling is to be assumed, since failures since then only in connection with lack of lubricity of the fuel are known. With a biodiesel share of more than five percent or non-European diesel qualities, this is a problem for all injection systems .
|series||engine code||Displacement (cm³)||Stroke × bore (mm)||Power at (1 / min)||Torque at (1 / min)||cylinder||compression||charging||injection|
|J||JS||2700||?? × 94.5||-||-||4||-||-||-|
|J||J2||2665||95 × 94.5||80/84 at 4150||172/175 at 2400||4||18.1||-||swirl chamber|
|J||JT||2957||?? × 98||92/85 at 4000||172/181 at 2200||4||-||-||swirl chamber|
|J||J3 (TCI)||2902||98 × 97.1||126 at 3600||338 at 1950||4||-||turbo||Direct injection
-? - bar
|J||J3 (CR)||2902||98 × 97.1||125 at 3800||245 at 1500-3250||4||17.4||turbo||CRDI
-? - bar
|J||J3 (CR)||2902||98 × 97.1||144/150 at 3800||310/333 at 2000||4||-||turbo||CRDI
1500 bar /
|J||J3 (CR)||2902||98 × 97.1||163 at 3800/1885
|345 at 1750-3000 /
343 at 1500-3500
|4||18.4 / 18.0||Turbo /
Listed are the J-motors installed worldwide for each model, not all countries are offered in all listed configurations.
- Terracan HP
- J3 CR (150 hp): 2002-2004
- J3 CR (163 hp): 2004-2006
- Carnival UP
- J3 TCI (126 hp): 1999-2001
- Carnival GQ
- J3 CR (144 hp): 2002-2005
- Carnival VQ
- J3 CR (185 hp): 2005-today (replaced by R 2.2 in Europe at the end of 2009 )
- Besta TA
- JS: 1992-1997
- Pregio TB (still sold as Besta in some markets)
- J2: 1997-2002
- JT: 2002-2006
- K2700 K62W
- J2 (83 hp): 1997-1999 (Euro 1 variant)
- K2700 SD
- J2 (80 hp): 1999-2004 (Euro 2 variant, since Euro 3 duty from 2001, the vehicle is no longer available in Europe)
- K2700 TU
- J2 (83 hp): 2000-2004
- K2700 PU
- J2 (83 hp): 2004-today
- K2900 PU
- J3 CR (125 hp): 2008-today
- K3000 / Frontier
- JT (92 hp): 1997-2000
- K3000S / Frontier II
- JT (85 hp): 2000-today