Hyundai KIA Gamma G4F Petrol engine
|Hyundai / KIA|
|Gamma, Gamma LPI Hybrid,
|Manufacturer:||Hyundai / KIA|
|Engines:||1.4 L (1396 cc)
1.6 L (1591 cc)
|Cylinder firing order:||1-3-4-2|
The Gamma series are four-cylinder double overhead camshaft ( DOHC ) gasoline engines with four valves per cylinder. The engines are built in Shandong ( China ), Žilina ( Slovakia ), Hwaseong ( South Korea ) and Irrungattukatoi ( India ) .
Engine codes G4FA,G4FC,L4FC,4FD. Used in the Hyundai Accent,Elantra, i20, i30,Veloster.
KIA , cee'd,Cerato,Forte, Rio,soul,Sportage,Venga
The Gamma series replaced since 2006, debuted in 1990, the first developed in Korea engine series Alpha .It is a mechanically significantly revised version of the Alpha II, the Bosch remained unchanged -Motorsteuereinheit for non-GDI version on the hardware side.
The engine block and cylinder head are in contrast to the predecessor both made of aluminum . Both engines use a now-consistent 77.0 mm bore and only vary the cylinder length from 74.9 (1.4 liters) to 85.4 (1.6 liters). The dry weight was reduced by 15 to 99.5 and 99.8 kilograms.
The intake and exhaust camshafts are connected to a timing chain which is driven by a second one of the crankshaft . Thus, the motors do not require a regular replacement of a timing belt as in the predecessor . The ancillary units are driven by a serpentine belt inspection is provided every 15,000 km or 12 months, its replacement when required.
The valves are actuated by mechanical bucket tappets without overlapping plates (hence " shimless mechanical bucket tappets"). reduce compared to the hydraulic tappets in the previous resistance for the cams . Like these, they are maintenance-free, but less expensive and less dependent on good oil viscosity . Over the years, the surface of the plunger and cam is removed, thus reducing the stroke of the valve in the cylinder chamber. This allows less air to flow in, whereupon the engine automatically reduces the amount of petrol and thus its performance. This is accompanied by an audible ticking sound,because the cam no longer constantly rests on the tappets, but only reached this once per revolution - the emergence produces the ticking sound.This may disappear by the expansion in the engine is warm, but that's lash thus become too large. Its inspection is scheduled in the maintenance plan every 95,000 km, a maintenance but only when needed. In this, the removed material would be offset by a new, slightly longer tappets. The exchange can usually be combined with that of the spark plugs (every 40,000 km).
Characteristic for the gamma series is the offset crankshaft, which is now being used for the first time by Hyundai / KIA. The pistons are constantly pressed against a cylinder wall by the rotational movement of the crankshaft. An offset of this position by one centimeter now allows the pistons to slide down more smoothly in the ignition phase. This friction reduction reduces not only the consumption but also the vibrations. The same procedure uses about Toyota in Prius . The pistons were also friction- reduced by a MoS 2 coating.
Each gamma engine has a CVVT named intake side camshaft adjustment. Since 2011, the exhaust side is also varied in the KIA Rio and Hyundai Elantra (dual-CVVT), but the performance in the Rio remains the same Both CVVT have only an effect on the temporal overlap of the valve opening from the inlet and outlet side: the opening time on the input side is variable by 50 ° of a crankshaft revolution, for the outlet side of the D-CVVT the value is unknown. Constant, however, remains the valve lift and thus the opening duration . The CVVT is therefore comparable to the BMW-single or double-VANOS technology, In addition to a better torque in the lower speed range, it mainly reduces the nitrogen oxide values by the exhaust gas recirculation effect of a simultaneous valve opening is used - this already exhausted exhaust gas is sucked back into the combustion chamber. The CVVT is not always listed due to its standardity.
The used M12 ' Long Reach' spark plugs create a larger space for water cooling on the cylinder due to their longer narrow shaft. This decreases its temperature and with it the knock tendency of the mixture. The valves could also be increased, which allows the air to flow faster - a high-performance effect at high speeds. In addition, KIA Rio Gamma engine was measures to reduce friction, the scope was not detailed. They draw from the corresponding repertoire in the Gamma GDI .
Between the cylinder walls, a motor-block-integrated lead frame for vibration reduction was inserted opposite the Alpha II . The better thermal conductivity of the aluminum also leads to faster reaching the operating temperature and reduces friction due to unevenly extended cylinder. The now stainless steel exhaust manifold keeps the exhaust gas temperature high to heat the catalyst faster.
In the middle of 2009, Idle Stop & Go debuted the manufacturer's first automatic stop-start system, simultaneously applied to one diesel and one gasoline line each. The choice fell on medium-range engine series, in which city driving is likely and whose establishment ensures the achievement of many vehicle segments. On the gasoline side, this only achieves the gamma range; on the diesel side, the same applies to the U2 series . Development partner at the ISG was Bosch, whose ECUs already work in several engine series of the group.
Gamma LPI Hybrid
In 2009, a LPG variant of the 1.6-liter engine debuted in the first Hyundai / KIA mild hybrids Kia Forte LPI Hybrid and Hyundai Elantra LPI HEV in South Korea. Due to the lower susceptibility to knock of the auto gas, the compression of 10.5 to 12.0 was: 1 and raised in order to compensate for the approximately 25-percent lower energy density of the fuel by about eight percent ( see FIG. ). In addition, the contact pressure of the piston rings was reduced due to the higher compression, a lower spring pressure also relieved the valves. In addition to the MoS² coating of the pistons of the gamma were the contact surfaces of the tappetscoated with a diamond-like carbon layer. The engine works in the hybrid-typical Atkinson cycle . This allows particularly low consumption, but provides sufficient propulsion only in the middle speed range. Therefore, a continuously variable ratio CVT transmission provides a constant speed even during acceleration. The one from 0 to 100 km / h takes 12 seconds.
Since there is no direct mechanical connection between accelerator pedal and engine due to the mild hybrid system, this is now carried out electronically .
The hybrid drive works in parallel with the Gamma LPI, which is the hybrid form of least complexity, minimizing weight and cost. However, it contains two unique selling points. On the one hand, no other hybrid drive uses LPG as fuel and on the other hand debuts in these vehicles a lithium-polymer battery as energy storage of the electric motor. It is supplied by LG Chemical and thus, like all components of the hybrid system, from Korean manufacturers. Its advantageous compared to lithium-ion batterieshigher energy density with lower manufacturing costs, higher mechanical and charging cycle robustness. The manufacturer tested it during 300,000 test kilometers, including overcharging. It is cooled by a fan as needed, the electric motor only by the wind. The latter has an efficiency of up to 95 percent. The consumption of the vehicles is given as 6.9 liters of LPG per 100 km. Converted to gasoline consumption this would be 4.6 l for 100 km.
The drive was developed over 43 months for $ 189 million. It will initially be offered only in South Korea, but at the start of the market an economic study was started for countries with "very good" LPG infrastructure, namely Australia and China .
In mid-2010, the 1.6-L version received a GDI named direct injection (Gasoline Direct Injection). This engine is offered since November 2010 in the Hyundai ix35 and Kia Sportage SL . In conventional injection for gasoline engines, the injection valve is located in the intake manifold upstream of the intake valve. In the direct injection is injected directly into the cylinder. Hyundai used as most GDI competitors for homogeneous stoichiometric mixture formation and dispensed with an inhomogeneous stratified charge(stratified fuel charge). The latter is associated with systemic disadvantages, such as significantly increased particulate matter.The more precise fuel supply directly in the cylinder increased the compression ratio from 10.5 to 11.5 to 1. It leads to about five percent fuel savings. The higher injection pressure of 150 bar (without GDI about 5 bar) also causes a more homogeneous fuel atomization and thus a cleaner combustion. He goes along with a system typical Tick noise.
In addition to the direct injection, several friction-reducing changes were made The contact surfaces of the tappets are coated with a diamond-like carbon layer, supported by a chromium-nitride coating of the piston rings. Water cooling between the cylinders minimizes temperature differences between the top and bottom ends of the cylinders, increasing their uniformity and reducing friction-increasing distortion. The T5 die casting process of the cylinder block supports this even expansion. The material of the valve seats is hardened.
In addition, the Gamma GDI has a variable intake manifold (Variable Intake System). Its control takes into account the pulsation of the air in the intake manifold caused by the opening and closing of the valves. If these pressure impulses find their way into the cylinder, adapted to their rhythm, a slight resonance charging effect is created. This opens at low and high speeds suitable for this short air. At medium speeds, the longer air flow is used via a flap, resulting in consistently high torque.
The intake camshaft CVVT control has been extended by one for the output side, resembling the BMW Double VANOS technology. Named the D (ual) -CVVT, the system is powered by a newly developed quieter and more durable steel chain and contributes to improved performance.
|series||engine code||Displacement (cm³)||Stroke × bore (mm)||Power in kW (hp) at 1 / min||Torque (Nm) at (1 / min)||cylinder||compression||injection|
|gamma||G4FA||1396||74.9 × 77.0||66/75/80 (90/101/109) 1at 6200||137 at 5000||4||10.5||MFI|
|gamma||G4FC||1591||85.4 × 77.0||90/93/97 (122/126/132) 2at 6200/6200/6300||154/154/158 at 4200/4200/4850||4||10.5||MFI|
|Gamma LPI||L4FC||1591||85.4 × 77.0||85 (115) at 6000
+ 15 electrical
|148 at 4500
+ 125 electric
|Gamma GDI||G4FD||1591||85.4 × 77.0||100/103 (136/140) 3 at 6300||165/167 3 at 4850||4||11.0||GDI|
1 from market launch in 2007 80 kW, since 2008 for fuel-saving models in reduced versions. From 2011 in the KIA Rio with dual CVVT, but unchanged performance.
Listed are the worldwide installed gamma engines for each model, not all countries are offered in all listed configurations.
- Accent RB
- G4FA, G4FC, G4FD: 2011-today
- Elantra HD
- G4FC: 2007-today
- L4FC: 2009-today
- Elantra UD (from Ulsan) / MD (from Montgomery, Alabama)
- G4FC: 2011-today (Europe, Middle East)
- G4FD: 2010-today (South Korea)
- i20 PB
- G4FA, G4FC: 2008-today
- ix20 JC
- G4FA, G4FC: 2010-today
- i30 FD (from Korea) / FDH (from the Czech Republic)
- G4FA, G4FC: 2007-today
- i30 GD
- G4FD 2011-today
- Veloster FS
- G4FD: 2011-today
- cee'd ED
- G4FA, G4FC: 2006-today
- cee'd JD
- G4FA, G4FD 2012-today
- Cerato LD
- G4FC: 2006-2009
- Forte TD
- G4FC: 2008-today
- L4FC: 2009-today
- G4FD: 2010-today
- Rio UB
- G4FA: 2011-today (Europe)
- G4FD: 2011-today (North America)
- Soul AM
- G4FC: 2008-2011 (Europe)
- G4FD: 2011-today
- Sportage SL
- G4FD: 2010-today (Europe)
- Venga YN
- G4FA, G4FC: 2009-today