Hyundai KIA D diesel engines
|Hyundai / KIA|
|Manufacturer:||Hyundai / KIA|
|Style:||Row end cylinder /four-cylinder|
|Engines:||1.5 L (1493 cc) / |
2.0 L (1991 cc)
2.2 L (2188 cc)
|Cylinder firing order:||1-3-2 / 1-3-4-2|
|Successor:||1.5: Hyundai KIA U |
2.0: Hyundai KIA R
2.2: Hyundai KIA R
|Similar models:||VM Motori RA 315 / |
VM Motori RA 420
The D series consists of two four-cylinder diesel engines and one of the same technology reduced to three cylinders. The engines feature direct injection , turbocharger and an overhead camshaft ( SOHC ), which operates four valves per cylinder . The engines are Hyundai / KIA in Ulsan , South Korea made .
The D-series was the first offered for cars diesel series of the group under 2.5 L. Since the 1970s, they already produced diesel for commercial vehicles, whose range today ranges from 4 to 10 liters displacement . Although these as well as the 2.5 to 3.0 L ranging car diesel partly have direct injection and turbocharger, the manufacturer resorted to this license back to a license . For this purpose, a contract with the engine developer VM Motori was signed in 1999 and the first produced by Hyundai in 2000 . The shares in the joint development were not detailed, the VM engines (1.5 / 2.0 L) from 2006 but also from GM Daewoomade in South Korea .
The engine block is made of gray cast iron , its cylinder head made of light metal . Both variants up to 2.0L have the same cylinder dimensions with a bore of 83 mm and a stroke of 92 mm. The 2.2L added in 2006 increases the bore to 87 mm. He was added by Hyundai to the series, VM Motori does not offer it. The 2.0L four-cylinder weighs 201.4 kg only 14 percent more than the 1.5L three-cylinder with 176 kg, although he has a third more displacement and power . The 2.0 and 2.2L engines also have two, the 1.5L a balancer shaft (s) . Engine control and injection system are supplied by Bosch .
The idling is 750 revolutions per minute . From the second series , the engine is controlled by an electronic accelerator pedal . Since then, only the four-cylinder versions of Hyundai / KIA continue, while the 1.5L version is replaced by the completely self-developed U-series .
The power transmission from the crankshaft to the camshaft takes place by means of a toothed belt . His inspection is planned every 20,000 km, his replacement after 80,000 km (Series 1) or only when needed (Series 2) .
The valves are operated by roller rocker arms, which act like a rocker. At the vertex of the cam is on. During its rotation, it presses one side and thus two valves downwards, while on the other hand the hydraulic tappet, which is extended by means of a built-in spring, always lies flush . This form of lash adjuster is maintenance-free, even an inspection is not provided in the maintenance plan . Wear would be signaled by a ticking sound.
For faster heating of the interior, vehicles with D engines have an electric heater ( PTC ). This is mounted in the air stream and heats it as needed via an electrical resistance. This achieves a much faster heating than a diesel engine alone or with a heater for the cooling water circuit could afford. However, such a cooling water heater has the advantage of being an integral part of a heater , which could thus be retrofitted cost. The built-in electric heater, however, requires a complete heater kit.
Although not classified by the manufacturer in series, in addition to the original version a revision of the series recognizable, hereinafter referred to as series 2.
VM Motori was founded in Italy in 1947 by the two eponymous entrepreneurs Vancini and Martelli, where Cento produces around 70,000 diesel engines per year for various manufacturers . However, this production capacity was not enough for Hyundai / KIA, which is why it was contractually agreed to an exclusive production in South Korea. This example was later followed by GM / Daewoo, which in 2006 with 260,000 units of this engine series even 20,000 more than Hyundai schedule . That's why construction-like engines listed here can also be found as EcoTec CDTi in Chevrolet and Opel models. They complement the 1.3- and 1.9-L diesels from the joint venture with Fiat and the Isuzu V6 diesels , VM Motori itself has not been producing the engines since 2005 .
The direct injection takes place via perpendicularly from above into the cylinder reaching nozzles. This minimizes diesel condensate on the relatively cool cylinder inner wall which would become soot. The nozzles are supplied by a fuel line for all cylinders ( common rail ), in which the diesel is pending at 250 to 1350 bar . The latter figure indicates that it is a first-generation system ("CRS1") . Later increases in pressure, which leads to more homogeneous mixture formation and thus less oxygen-rich, nitric oxide-producing and oxygen-poor, soot-producing nests.
This series has no soot filtration or nitrogen oxide reduction in exhaust aftertreatment. This consists only of an oxidation catalyst , which replaces the conventional three-way catalyst due to the high amounts of oxygen in the exhaust gas comparison to the gasoline engine . Unlike this, he passes the nitrogen oxides and works as a two-way catalyst. Like its counterpart, it uses oxygen to process carbon monoxide (CO) into carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and hydrocarbons (HC) into carbon dioxide and water. The nitrogen oxides are left out, since due to the excess of oxygen that first reacts with the carbon monoxide (2 CO + O 2 to 2 CO 2). Thus, this carbon monoxide is no longer the nitrogen oxides (NO x ) available for reduction in pure nitrogen (CO and NO to N 2 and CO 2 ).
Soot-reducing effect is the typical diesel lean operation and exhaust gas recirculation (→ next paragraph) of these engines. From exhaust gas temperatures of 200 ° C and the oxidation catalyst contributes to this. These are achieved during longer load phases as on highway drives. From 200 ° C is formed in the oxidation catalyst of nitrogen monoxide and the abundant oxygen, nitrogen dioxide (2 NO + O 2 to 2 NO 2 ). This is reduced by the absorption of soot (carbon, C) into harmless nitrogen and carbon dioxide : 2C + 2NO 2 = 2CO 2 + N 2 , However, this does not affect previously produced soot, as in the particulate filter of the second series. The unoxidized nitrogen dioxide escapes.
For nitrogen oxide reduction, these engines use exhaust gas recirculation . In the partial load range, this leads up to 60% of the exhaust gas back into the intake tract. The nitrogen oxides contained therein are thus neutralized, the same applies to soot particles and not yet burned hydrocarbons (eg PAH ). However, if too much exhaust gas is introduced, there is a lack of oxygen in the cylinder for complete combustion. That resulted in more soot. Therefore, the only partial exhaust gas recirculation is possible anyway only in the partial load range. In the Euro3 standard achieved by this series, the permitted amount of nitrogen oxide remains at three times that of a gasoline engine. Nitrogen oxides promote smog and ozone formation as well as acid rain, Nitrogen dioxide is irritating. Diesel engines work to reduce soot with excess oxygen, which leads to locally very high temperatures in the cylinder. These promote nitric oxide formation. The feedback is done here without electrical control or cooling, as they came in the second series.Particulate filter retrofitting of this series may possibly result in obtaining a better particulate plaque. Hyundai / KIA offers corresponding open filters .
All engines in the series have a turbocharger . This promotes more oxygen in the cylinder chamber, as would normally flow, whereby the engine can add more fuel. As a result, the performance increases to that of a larger displacement, the capacity can be provided by means of motor control even at low speeds. Thus, and by the smaller displacement friction losses are reduced, whereby the consumption is below that of a turbocharged, larger engine. This first series uses a Mitsubishi TDO25M turbocharger . In 2003, a Garrett GT 1752V with variable geometry followed for a 125 hp variant of the 2.0L engine. This minimizes the acceleration delay after pressing the accelerator pedal. The unvariable turbocharger is a resonance system that has to be excited first. Only a lot of exhaust gas accelerates the turbine in the exhaust stream so strong that it promotes the desired more air into the cylinder on the intake side. This deceleration is called "turbo lag" and must be taken into account during acceleration by the driver. As a remedy, a VGT system also accelerates low exhaust flows by directing them to the turbine through a temporarily narrowed airway. The VGT vanes are mounted like on a wheeled excavator wheel and reach into the exhaust stream, They steer, folded almost to the circle, faster, or unfolded slow exhaust gas on the turbine of the turbocharger. This accelerates or slows down accordingly. The latter is used at higher engine speeds, since there is hardly any need for more air. On the contrary, this would exceed the intended pressure in the cylinder and thus mechanically damage the engine components. Therefore, as with this engine, the VGT control usually makes the overpressure valve ( wastegate ) unvariable turbocharger superfluous.
The second series, launched at the end of 2005, features a second-generation injection system ("CRS2"), with common rail now running at 250 to 1600 bar. The number of injections per ignition process was increased. This is therefore controlled by a 32-bit double-band Bosch control chip. Instead of the pilot injection that follows a main injection just before the ignition timing, the pilot fuel amount is divided into two injections, which may follow two post-injections after the main charge as needed. This subdivision improves the running culture as the combustion process in the cylinder is prolonged. In addition, smaller amounts of fuel are distributed better in the cylinder. This reduces soot and nitrogen oxides through less inhomogeneous areas of oxygen deficiency and excess.
The exhaust-gas recirculation system (declaration in series 1 ), which reduces emissions as it were , is now controlled more precisely. Their electrical control reduces the deviation from the desired return rate by 50 percent. For this purpose, the oxygen value in the exhaust gas is also evaluated by the newly added lambda probe . In addition, the recirculated exhaust gas is now cooled . This lowers the combustion temperature nitrogen oxide lowering and still provides enough oxygen through the denser by means of cooling volume, so as not to favor soot.
For some markets, including Germany, this series has been equipped with a closed particle filter , preceded by an oxidation catalyst ( Series 1 declaration ) in the same housing . Both were developed at the European Group Powertrain Center in Rüsselsheim . In contrast to open systems, this type can not be retrofitted, as the motor must detect the fill level of the filter via sensor technology and regenerate it if necessary. The filter performance increases from around 30 to more than 95 percent of the particle mass, and the same applies to the number of particularly relevant nanoparticles (see Particle emission ).
The degradation of the particles takes place in two stages. Passive regeneration is an oxidation of soot filtrate. This works only at exhaust gas temperatures, as they come on longer highway trips. In this case, by means of NO 2formed in the oxidation catalyst from 200 ° C., soot particles in the filter are oxidized to CO 2 . The excess nitrogen dioxide escapes, An active regeneration must intervene if this temperature is not reached and the filter is filled to about 45% of its capacity. Then, the engine control artificially produces a temperature of 600 ° C by injecting diesel directly after ignition, resulting in no additional power but the necessary exhaust gas temperatures . The consumption increases by three to eight percent (depending on the frequency), the soot is burned here. The soot filtrate leaves some ash in the filter after active regeneration, which is designed for a lifetime of 240,000 km, The regeneration takes about 25 minutes without stop-and-go traffic at a speed of over 2000 rpm from third gear. If these trips remain off, flashing from 75% of the filter level a warning light in the cockpit, which refers to the driver to a necessary regeneration. If it continues to flash after the described drive, consult a workshop that performs the regeneration. If this also fails, there is a risk of damage to the particulate filter, which, like all closed ones, has no overpressure valve by name .
The turbocharger was replaced by a Garrett GTB1549V . At 15 mm, this has a turbine diameter that is two millimeters smaller on the exhaust side and, at 49 mm, a three millimeter smaller turbine diameter on the intake side compared to the Garrett turbocharger of the first series . Like this, it has a variable geometry (explanation in series 1 ), but is accelerated by the smaller diameter faster.
With this series, the 1.5L engine was discontinued, he was replaced in 2005 by the U-series .
In 2006, a 2.2L engine for larger, comfort-stressed vehicles was submitted later. The previously used in this vehicle size A range with 2.5L would have to be adapted to a closed particulate filter and had less refinement.
In 2008, the performance of the 2.0L engine was increased by ten to 150 hp, but torque and injection system remained the same. This also applies to the 136 hp following version of the 140 hp version, for the 120 hp entry-level variant, the torque was reduced. It also consumes more than the above . The goal of the 136 and 150 hp variants is to undercut the 160 g CO² / km limit, which represents one of three levels of state support programs . Details of the revision have not been published.
With the Euro 5 requirement for new cars from 2011, the use of the D series in its main market in Europe ends. It will be replaced from model year 2011 by a resulting performance level of the U2 engines with 128 hp, in larger vehicles also by R engines .
|series||engine code||Displacement (cm³)||Stroke × bore (mm)||Power at (1 / min)||Torque at (1 / min)||cylinder||compression||charging||injection|
|1||D3EA||1493||92 × 83||82 at 4000||187/191 at 1900-2700||3||17.7||turbo||CRDI |
|1||D4EA||1991||92 × 83||112/113 at 4000||245 at 1800-2500||4||17.7||turbo||CRDI |
|1||D4EA-V1||1991||92 × 83||125 at 4000||245 at 1800-2500||4||17.7||VNT Turbo 2||CRDI |
|2||D4EA (-F) 3||1991||92 × 83||120/136/140/1504 at 4000||305 at 1800-2500 / |
278 at 2240 5
|4||17.3||VNT Turbo2||CRDI |
|2||D4EB-G (L) / - F (L) 6||2188||92 × 87||150/155 6 at 4000||335/343 at 1800-2500||4||17.3||VNT Turbo2||CRDI |
Listed are the D-motors installed worldwide for each model, not all of the listed configurations are available in every country.
- Accent LC
- D3EA (82 hp): 2002-2005
- Elantra XD
- D4EA (112 hp): 2001-2006
- Getz TB
- D3EA: 2003-2005
- Grandeur TG
- D4EB-F: 2007-2010
- i30 FH (from Korea) / FDH (from the Czech Republic)
- D4EA (140 hp): 2007-2010
- Matrix FC
- D3EA: 2001-2005
Hyundai Santa Fe
- Santa Fe SM
- D4EA (113 hp): 2001-2003
- D4EA-V (125 hp): 2003-2005
- Santa Fe CM
- D4EA (140 hp): 2005-2008
- D4EA (150 hp): 2008-2009
- D4EB-G, D4EB-GL: 2005-?
- D4EB-F: 2006-2009
- Sonata NF
- D4EA (140 hp): 2006-2008
- D4EA (150 hp): 2008-2010
- Tucson JM
- D4EA (113 hp): 2004-2005
- D4EA-F (140 hp): 2005-2008
- D4EA-F (150 hp): 2008-2010
- Trajet FO
- D4EA (113 hp): 2001-2006
- D4EA-V (125 hp): 2005-2006
- Carens FC
- D4EA (113 hp): 2002-2005
- D4EA-F (140 hp): 2006
- Carens UN
- D4EA (140 hp): 2006-2009
- cee'd ED
- D4EA (140 hp): 2007-2010
- Cerato LD
- D4EA (113 hp): 2004-2006
- Magentis MG
- D4EA (140 hp): 2006-2008
- D4EA (120, 136, 150 hp): 2008-2010
- Sportage JE
- D4EA (113 hp): 2004-2005
- D4EA-V (125 hp): 2005
- D4EA-F (140 hp): 2005-2008
- D4EA-F (150 hp): 2008-2010