Hyundai KIA R diesel engines
|Hyundai / KIA|
|Manufacturer:||Hyundai / KIA|
|Engines:||2.0 L (1995 cc)
2.2 L (2199 cc)
|Cylinder firing order:||1-3-4-2|
|Previous model:||Hyundai KIA D|
In series R is four-cylinder diesel engines with direct injection , turbocharged , double overhead camshaft ( DOHC ) and four valves per cylinder . The engines are manufactured in ( South Korea ) .Engine codes D4HA,D4HB fitted to the KIA Sportage, KIA Sorento,KIA Carnival,Hyundai ix35,Hyundai Santa Fe,
The R engines belong to the fourth fully self-developed four-cylinder car diesel series of the group after A , J and U series.
The engine block and cylinder head are made of aluminum , whose vibration tendency, together with the piston size caused by the displacement and thus mass, necessitates a balancing shaft . This runs in opposite directions to the crankshaft and thus reduces noise, the cause of energy losses in the single-digit PS range would be, which are also avoided. Housed is the shaft in the crankshaft housing, whose integrated lead frame minimizes vibrations .
The cylinder measure starts with a bore of 84 mm and a stroke of 90 mm, which are increased to 84.5 and 96 mm for the larger variant. Weight and idle speed have not been published.
The camshafts are driven by the crankshaft via a maintenance-free timing chain , the ancillaries of a serpentine belt . Its inspection and exchange intervals are noted in the manual.
The valves are operated by roller rocker arms, which act like a rocker. At the vertex of the cam is on. During its rotation, it pushes one side and thus the valve downwards, while on the other hand, the hydraulic tappet, which extends by means of a built-in spring, always lies flush. This form of valve clearance compensation is maintenance-free, even an inspection is not provided in the maintenance plan. Wear would be signaled by a ticking sound.
For faster heating of the interior, vehicles with R engines have an electric heater ( PTC ). This is mounted in the air stream and heats it as needed via an electrical resistance. This achieves a much faster heating than a diesel engine alone or with a heater for the cooling water circuit could afford. However, such a cooling water heater has the advantage of being an integral part of a heater , which could thus be retrofitted cost. The built-in electric heater, however, requires a complete heater kit.
The development of the R series began in 2006 after the completion of the S V6 and cost 140 million euros. It was carried out in the European Powertrain Center in Rüsselsheim, she was then presented in late 2008 in the Namyang Powertrain Center in Hwaseong . The 500 prototypes in the series employed 150 people for 42 months.
To reduce weight, the manufacturer uses here for the first time in its diesel engines, the all-aluminum construction. He also manufactures cylinder head cover, intake manifold and plastic oil filter housing. However, there is no information on the total weight, making the progress on the predecessor is not quantifiable .The roller rocker arms in the valve train have a needle bearing . In contrast to ball bearings , which are otherwise used for roller drag levers, the element to be stored runs directly on thin rods, which, due to their size, remind of needles. This saves the space for an intermediate inner ring and minimizes the size.
Ceramic glow plugs are designed to ensure fast startability of the engines , which even at low temperatures bring the diesel-air mixture to self-ignition temperature in cold start phases . For faster heating of the interior, a heater is integrated.The serpentine belt runs over a vibration damping Metaldyne pulley . It filters the vibrations of the crankshaft and thus makes the drive of the ancillaries gentler and quieter . For better durability of the pulley itself contributes to their production of EPDM rubber . The damping takes place via a secondary mass rotatably coupled to the primary mass ( inert mass ). It leveled short-term torsional vibrations of the crankshaft.The series started in autumn 2009 with the 2.2 L engine in the Kia Sorento , a quarter later, the 2.0 L version with 184 hp followed . In 2010, this was released in a version with 136 hp and other turbocharger . Its manufacturer BorgWarner also supplies the glow plugs for this version.
The Bosch injection system of the third generation ("CRS 3.2" or "CRS3-18") is equipped with piezo injectors Their advantage over magnetic injectors is the faster termination of the injection. Thus, a larger amount of fuel can be introduced precisely enough in time. This causes more power while still low-residue combustion. The number of injections per ignition process can be increased to eight depending on the situation. This subdivision improves the running culture as the combustion process in the cylinder is prolonged. In addition, smaller amounts of fuel are distributed better in the cylinder. This reduces soot and nitrogen oxides through less inhomogeneous areas of oxygen deficiency and excess. In addition to pilot injections shortly before ignition and the main charges for the actual piston movement, the post-injections serve for the partial combustion of resulting soot particles.The direct injection is controlled by a 32-bit chip . The nozzles are supplied by a fuel line for all cylinders ( Common Rail ), in which the diesel is present at 250 to 1800 bar. This was the highest pressure level in 2009, making the premiere the most homogeneous available mixture formation with the lowest oxygen-rich, nitrogen oxide-producing and oxygen-poor, soot-producing nests .
This series has soot filtering , but no nitrogen oxide reduction in the exhaust aftertreatment. This consists of a closed particulate filter , which in the same housing an oxidation catalyst is arranged upstream of . Both are positioned directly after the turbocharger. This helps the catalyst to reach its operating temperature quickly.Due to the high amount of oxygen in the exhaust gas comparison with the gasoline engine, the oxidation catalyst replaces the usual three-way catalyst . Unlike this, he passes the nitrogen oxides and works as a two-way catalyst. Like its counterpart, it uses oxygen to process carbon monoxide (CO) into carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and hydrocarbons (HC) into carbon dioxide and water. The nitrogen oxides are left out, as due to the excess of oxygen that first reacts with the carbon monoxide (2 CO + O 2 to 2 CO 2 ). Thus, this carbon monoxide is no longer the nitrogen oxides (NO x ) available for reduction in pure nitrogen (CO and NO to N 2and CO 2 ).Soot-reducing effect is the typical diesel lean operation , the exhaust gas recirculation and the closed diesel particulate filter of these engines. In contrast to open systems, this type can not be retrofitted, as the motor must detect the fill level of the filter via sensor technology and regenerate it if necessary. The filter performance increases from around 30 to more than 95 percent of the particle mass, and the same applies to the number of particularly relevant nanoparticles . The degradation of the particles takes place in two stages. Passive regeneration is an oxidation of soot filtrate. This works only at exhaust gas temperatures, as they come on longer highway trips. Here are formed by means formed in the oxidation catalyst NO2 from 200 ° C soot particles in the filter to CO 2 oxidized. The excess nitrogen dioxide escapes , An active regeneration must intervene if this temperature is not reached and the filter is filled to about 45% of its capacity. Then, the engine control artificially manufactures a temperature of 600 ° C by injecting diesel directly after ignition, resulting in no additional power but the required exhaust gas temperatures. The consumption increases by three to eight percent (depending on the frequency), the soot is burned here. The soot filtrate leaves some ash in the filter after active regeneration, an indication of shelf life was not made. The regeneration takes about 25 minutes without stop-and-go traffic at a speed of over 2000 rpm from third gear. If these trips remain off, a warning light in the cockpit flashes from 75% of the filter level, which refers the driver to a necessary regeneration. If it continues to flash after the described drive, consult a workshop that performs the regeneration. If this also fails, there is a risk of damage to the particulate filter, which, like all closed ones, does not have a pressure relief valve .
For nitrogen oxide reduction, these engines use exhaust gas recirculation . In the partial load range, this leads up to 60% of the exhaust gas back into the intake tract. The nitrogen oxides contained therein are thus neutralized, the same applies to soot particles and not yet burned hydrocarbons . However, if too much exhaust gas is introduced, there is a lack of oxygen in the cylinder for complete combustion. That resulted in more soot. Therefore, the only partial exhaust gas recirculation is possible anyway only in the partial load range. In the Euro5 standard achieved by this seriesthe permitted amount of nitrogen oxide remains three times that of an Otto engine. The feedback is electrically controlled. This minimizes the deviation from the desired return rate. The oxygen value in the exhaust gas is also evaluated by means of the lambda probe . A cooling of the recirculated exhaust gas also reduces the combustion temperature nitrogen oxide reducing. The denser volume of air through cooling still provides enough oxygen to avoid soot. Nitrogen oxides promote smog and ozone formation as well as acid rain, nitrogen dioxideis irritating. Diesel engines work to reduce soot with excess oxygen, which leads to locally very high temperatures in the cylinder. These promote nitric oxide formation.Compaction was reduced from 17.3 to 16.5 to 16.0 compared to its predecessor . This reduces material pressure and thus the temperature in the cylinder. This results in less nitrogen oxides.
All engines in the series have a variable geometry turbocharger . This minimizes the acceleration delay after pressing the accelerator pedal. The unvariable turbocharger is a resonance system that has to be excited first. Only a lot of exhaust gas accelerates the turbine in the exhaust stream so strong that it promotes the desired more air into the cylinder on the intake side. This deceleration is called "turbo lag" and must be taken into account during acceleration by the driver. As a remedy, a VGT system also accelerates low exhaust flows by directing them to the turbine through a temporarily narrowed airway. The VGT vanes are mounted as on a wheeled excavator wheel and reach into the exhaust stream.They steer, folded almost to the circle, faster, or unfolded slow exhaust gas on the turbine of the turbocharger. This accelerates or slows down accordingly. The latter is used at higher engine speeds, since there is hardly any need for more air. On the contrary, this would exceed the intended pressure in the cylinder and thus mechanically damage the engine components. Therefore, as with this engine, the VGT control usually makes the overpressure valve ( wastegate ) unvariable turbocharger superfluous.
The turbocharger of the 136 hp variant is supplied by BorgWarner . This belongs to the now fourth VGT generation of the manufacturer. Their characteristic is the S-shaped vanes ("S-Vane"). They favor the manufacturer according to the controllability.The turbocharger of the 2010 added 150 hp version is not mentioned in the press materials of the turbo manufacturers and is therefore still unknown.The two more powerful variants use a Garrett GTB1752VLK. This has a turbine diameter of 17 mm on the exhaust and 52 mm on the intake side. It uses instead of the pneumatic an electric vane adjustment and thus allows a more precise control. Hyundai rejects these with the designation e -VGT. This belongs to the third generation of the turbo manufacturer, which will help with new vane shape and new turbine wheel to a third more air delivery at greatly reduced exhaust back pressure . The turbo is in a similar form (GTB1752V) in the 3.0-liter diesel engine with 275 hp Jaguar / Land Roverused there, however, in combination with an upstream, smaller loader as a sequential biturbo .
|series||engine code||Displacement (cm³)||Stroke × bore (mm)||Power at 1 / min||Torque at 1 / min||cylinder||compression||charging||injection|
|R||D4HA||1995||90 × 84||136 at 4000||304/320 at 1800-2500||4||16.5||VGT turbo||Piezo CRDI
|R||D4HA||1995||90 × 84||184 at 4000||383/392 at 1800-2500||4||16.0||e-VGT-Turbo||Piezo CRDI
|R||D4HB||2199||96 × 84.5||150 at 3800||412 at 1800-3500||4||16.0||e-VGT-Turbo||Piezo CRDI
|R||D4HB||2199||96 × 84.5||197 at 3800||421/436 at 1800-3500||4||16.0||e-VGT-Turbo||Piezo CRDI
Listed are the R motors installed worldwide for each model, not all of the listed configurations are available in every country.
- ix35 LM
- D4HA (184 hp): 2009-today
- D4HA (136 hp): 2010-today
Hyundai Santa Fe
- Santa Fe CM
- D4HA (184 hp): 2009-2012
- D4HB (197 hp): 2009-2012
- Santa Fe DM
- D4HB (197 hp): 2012-today
- Carnival VQ
- D4HB (197 hp): 2010-2011
- Sorento XM
- D4HA (184 hp): 2009-2014
- D4HB (197 hp): 2009-2014
- Sorento UM
- D4HB (200 hp): 2015-today
- Sportage SL
- D4HA (136 hp): 2010-today
- D4HA (184 hp): 2011-today