Ferrari 360 Modena
The Ferrari 360 is a two-seater sports car built by Ferrari from 1999 to 2005. It succeeded the Ferrari F355 and was replaced by the Ferrari F430. It is a mid-engined, rear wheel drive V8-powered coupe.
Ferrari partnered with Alcoa to produce an entirely new all aluminum space-frame chassis that was 40% stiffer than the F355 which had utilized steel. The design was 28% lighter despite a 10% increase in overall dimensions. Along with a lightweight frame the new Pininfarina body styling deviated from traditions of the previous decade's sharp angles and flip-up headlights. The new V8 engine, common to all versions, utilizes a 3.6 litre capacity, flat plane crankshaft, titanium connecting rods and generates 400 bhp (300 kW). Despite what looks like on paper modest gains in reality the power to weight ratio was significantly improved on over the F355, this was due to the combination of both a lighter car and more power. The 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) acceleration performance improved from 4.6 to 4.3 seconds.
The first model to be rolled out was the 360 Modena followed later by the 360 Spider and finally as a special edition, the Challenge Stradale: which was the highest performance road-legal version of the 360 produced by the factory, featuring carbon ceramic brakes (from the Enzo), track tuned suspension, aerodynamic gains, weight reduction, power improvements and revised gearbox software among its track focused brief.
In addition to this there were the low volume factory race cars, these were all derived from the 360 Modena and for the first time produced as a separate model in their own right (compared to being retro fit kit in previous incarnations). The first up was the 360 Modena Challenge, used in a one make series, the factory built racing cars were prepared by official tuner, Michelotto who also did the 360 N-GT. The N-GT was a 360 Challenge car evolved even further to compete more seriously in the FIA N-GT racing classes alongside other marques such as Porsche.
Finally a single 360 Barchetta was produced as a special wedding present from Ferrari to Ferrari president Luca di Montezemolo.
The first model of the 360 to be shipped was the Modena, named after the town of Modena, the birthplace of Enzo Ferrari. Its six-speed gearbox is available as a 6 speed manual, or F1 electrohydraulic manual which was only offered after late 2000.
The Modena went into production in 1999 and remained in production until 2005 when it was replaced by the F430. The Modena was followed 2 years later by the 360 Spider, Ferrari's 20th road-going convertible which at launch overtook sales of the Modena. Other than weight, the Spider's specifications matched those of the Modena almost exactly.
The Challenge Stradale was a later addition to the line-up, the finale model before replacement. It was essentially a lightened, factory tuned version of the Modena with many of the Modena's optional extras becoming standard. Carbon seats, racing exhaust, carbon engine bay, and so on. Famously at the time Ferrari claimed it dropped up to 110 kg over the stock Modena helping to improving its handling. Many other chassis optimizations where carried out too such as stiffer titanium springs (lowering unsprung weight), stiffer bushings and an updated rear anti roll bar (the same anti-roll bar as used on 430 Scuderia) along with a remapped active suspension computer. Changes also included larger 19" BBS wheels, the use of carbon fiber for the frames of the seats and mirrors, titanium springs which were also 20% stiffer, and Carbon fiber-reinforced Silicon Carbide (C/SiC) ceramic composite brake disks. A variety of option allowed for further weight reductions, including replacing the leather interior with fabric, removal of the power windows and mirrors, and deletion of the stereo. Lexan side windows were available in Europe only but everywhere else got the Lexan rear cover. It was officially introduced in March 2003 at the Geneva International Motor Show and went into production shortly thereafter. The CS can be compared to Porsche's GT3 RS model in design approach and many magazines have placed them head-to-head in road tests.
The 360 Spider is Ferrari's twentieth road-going convertible.
The 360 was designed with a Spider variant in mind; since removing the roof of a coupe reduces the torsional rigidity, the 360 was built for strength in other areas. Ferrari designers strengthened the sills, stiffened the front of the floorpan and redesigned the windscreen frame. The rear bulkhead had to be stiffened to cut out engine noise from the cabin. The convertible's necessary dynamic rigidity is provided by additional side reinforcements and a cross brace in front of the engine. Passenger safety is ensured by a strengthened windscreen frame and roll bars.
The 360 Spider displays a curvilinear waistline. The fairings imply the start of a roof, and stable roll bars are embedded in these elevations. Due to use of light aluminium construction throughout, the Spider weighs in only 60 kg (130 lb) heavier than the coupé.
As with the Modena version, its 3.6 litre V8 with 400 bhp (300 kW) is on display under a glass hood. The engine — confined in space by the convertible's top's storage area — acquires additional air supply through especially large side grills. The intake manifolds were moved toward the center of the engine between the air supply conduits in the Spider engine compartment, as opposed to lying apart as with the Modena. In terms of performance, the 0-60 time was slightly slower at 4.4 seconds due to the slight weight increase, and the top speed was reduced from 189 to 180 mph.
Despite the car's mid-mounted V8 engine, the electrically operated top is able to stow into the compartment when not in use. The convertible top was available in black, blue, grey and beige colors. The transformation from a closed top to an open-air convertible is a two-stage folding-action that has been dubbed "a stunning 20 second mechanical symphony".
The interior of the Spider is identical to that of the coupé.
- Overall: length 4,477 mm (176.3 in)
- Overall: width 1,922 mm (75.7 in)
- Height: 1,235 mm (48.6 in)
- Wheelbase: 2,600 mm (102.4 in)
- Front track: 1,669 mm (65.7 in)
- Rear track: 1,617 mm (63.7 in)
- Weight: 1,350 kg (2,976 lb)
- Curb weight: 1,450 kg (3,197 lb)
- Weight distribution: 42/58% front/rear
- Fuel capacity: 95 L (25 US gal; 21 imp gal)
The Challenge Stradale is a limited production track day focused car based on the 360 Modena. It was inspired by the 360 Modena Challenge racing car so the focus was primarily on improving its track lapping performance by concentrating on handling, braking and weight reduction characteristics, which are essential in pure racing cars. Ferrari engineers designed the car from the outset with a goal of 20% track day use in mind and 80% road use. With only a small 20 bhp (15 kW) improvement in engine power from the Modena (and boasting an improved power-to-weight ratio) the Challenge Stradale accelerates from 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) in 4.0 seconds (three tenths faster than a Modena) but bald figures do not paint the full picture. For the enthusiastic driver the differences are truly staggering; genuine systematic improvements were achieved to the setup and feel of the whole car. Throttle response from the digital throttle was ratcheted up and feedback through the steering wheel was enhanced. The responsiveness of the controls, the balance of the chassis, the braking performance and the driver feedback all contribute greatly to the overall driving experience and lead the Challenge Stradale to claim an impressive 3.5 seconds improvement per lap of its Fiorano circuit compared to the Modena (the target was 2.5 seconds).
In total, the Challenge Stradale is up to 110 kg (243 lb) lighter than the standard Modena if all the lightweight options are specified such as deleted radio, lexan (plexiglass) door window and Alcantara fabric (instead of the leather option). As much as 94 kilograms (207 lb) was taken off on the car by lightening the bumpers, stripping the interior of its sound deadening and carbon mirrors and making the optional Modena carbon seats standard. Resin Transfer Moulding was utilized for the bumpers and skirts, a carry over from the Challenge cars which resulted in lighter bumpers than on the Modena. The engine and transmission weight was slimmed down 11 kg (24 lb) through the use of a smaller, lighter weight sports (yet still stainless steel) exhaust back box and valved exit pipes. The Challenge Stradale also got Brembo carbon ceramic brakes as standard (which later became standard fitment on the F430) which shaved 16 kg off the curb weight and improved handling by reducing unsprung weight and completely eliminating brake fade.
360 Modena Challenge
Based on the 360 Modena road car, the 360MC (Modena Challenge) was an extensively reworked, non road legal car intended to compete in Ferrari's one-make racing series called the 'Ferrari Challenge'. It was only available with the F1 gearbox. At the time of launch, Ferrari claimed the 360MC accelerated from 0 to 62 mph in 3.9 seconds (0.6 secs quicker than the standard 360 Modena F1) and could corner and brake significantly faster than the road car. Brembo racing provided the upgraded Gold colored calipers and larger floating 2-piece discs, while Bosch provided race tuned ABS software. The exhaust system was lightened substantially and was one of the main contributions to the increased hp over stock engine (as ignition mapping was claimed to virtually the same). For the road cars (even the Challenge Stradale) Ferrari used a valve system which made the car more socially acceptable at lower revs (and therefore able to pass drive-by noise tests).
Unlike the previous Challenge car series, which utilized a F355 road car with a dealer-installed 'challenge upgrade' kit, the 360 MC was a factory built track car, which allowed greater weight reduction efforts. The enhanced driving characteristics and substantial weight reduction meant the car could comfortably outperform its road-going counterpart even though power from the 3.6 engine was claimed to be similar.
The 360MC featured a stripped-down race-car interior with the stereo, electric windows and locks, soundproofing, airbags, air-conditioning, and even the handbrake removed. The seats and restraints were replaced by a single carbon fiber racing seat and FIA approved restraint harnesses, and a roll cage was fitted for safety along with a fire suppression system. The instrument cluster was reworked with a monochrome LCD to display vital engine data. The adaptive suspension of the road car was replaced by adjustable racing dampers, while larger brakes with extra cooling ducts were added.
Official Performance figures
- Power (SAE net) : 410 bhp (306 kW; 416 PS) @ 8500 rpm
- Torque (SAE net) : 286 lb·ft (388 N·m) @ 4750 rpm
- 0–100 km/h (0-62 mph) : 3.9 sec
- Top speed (limited) : 185 mph (298 km/h)
- Kerb Weight : 1,250 kg (2,756 lb)
- Dry Weight : 1,169 kg (2,577 lb)
The Ferrari 360 GT is a race version of the 360 Modena developed by the Ferrari Corse Clienti department in Maranello, in collaboration with Michelotto Automobili to compete in the FIA N-GT class. Team JMB Giesse raced the cars during the 2001 FIA GT Championship season and won the N-GT Cup for Drivers and the N-GT Cup for Teams.
Since 2002 Ferrari sold 360 GTs to customers through their Corse Clienti department.
The Ferrari 360 GTC has been developed to replace the previous 360 GT. With a dry weight of 1100 kg, it was built since 2004 by Ferrari Corse Clienti department in collaboration with Michelotto Automobili to compete in the N-GT class. It made use of recent evolutions successfully race tested on the Ferrari 360 GT, with a sequential six-speed gearbox and a further improved Magneti Marelli electronics package. The aerodynamics are substantially different from the 360 GT, given that the 360 GTC has been newly homologated by FIA/ACO from the Challenge Stradale, taking up from its basic elements: front bumper, side skirts, engine cover and double rear end. Wind tunnel research has led to a new system for the rear wing, with a notable improvement in vertical downforce. The performance of the 90-degree V8 3586.2 cc engine has been improved in terms of fuel consumption.
In 2009 a privately owned Veloqx-Prodrive Racing 360 raced de-restricted, fully tuned variations of the GT-C in endurance races around the world including; Silverstone, Sebring and Le-Mans.
The original 360GT power output was 445 horsepower (332 kW) at 8750 rpm, the GTC bettered that raising peak power to 472 bhp while still breathing through the mandatory 30.8mm air restrictors. (Without the mandatory [for racing in N-GT class] air restrictors in place the engine dyno's at an astonishing 550 bhp).