Ural-375 truck history
Uralsky Awtomobilny Sawod
1960 to 1993
V8 gasoline engine
The Ural-375 ( Russian Урал-375 ) is a four-wheel drive Soviet truck in hood-type with the drive formula 6 × 6, which was made in Uralski Awtomobilny Sawod . It was widespread in the RGW area and located below the KrAZ-255 . The vehicle was built in various variants, with the most famous, the Ural-375D , also came in large numbers to the NVA of the GDR.
The first ideas for the development of a large all-terrain military truck already existed in the Soviet Union in 1953. At that time, the Ministry of Defense formulated a whole series of criteria that the new vehicle had to fulfill. These were given to the vehicle construction institute NAMI in Moscow with the task to develop appropriate test samples. The goal was also to close the gap between the smaller ZIS-151 and the larger JaAZ-214 and KrAZ-214 . Under the direction of engineer MI Korotonoschko, the NAMI-020 was built there until 1956. In fact, a whole family of trucks was designed to create models with two ( 4 × 4 drive formula), three (6 × 4 and 6 × 6), and four (8 × 4 and 8 × 8) axes. For mass production, however, only the version with three axes was approved.
The Ural-375D was one of the standard vehicles of the Soviet Army and played an important role in various other armies of the former Eastern Bloc as a transport vehicle.A considerable number of Ural-375 and especially Ural-375D were also found in the National People's Army of the GDR . Since the IFA G5 was discontinued, the Ural quickly became the standard vehicle for many different tasks. Officially, the import began in 1969, in fact, came from 1964 even a few Ural-375 the first version in the GDR. From 1965 to 1981 only Ural-375D were imported, a total of about 3700 vehicles. In addition to the standard version with flatbed and tarpaulin, the NVA also ran various special variants, including tankers such as the AC-5,5-375 model for 5500 l fuel or the Ural-375S and Ural-377S tractor units .
Until 1958 the extensive trials of the test vehicles were completed. All documents and functional samples were sent to the Uralsky Awtomobilny Sawod imeni Stalina (from 1961 Uralski Awtomobilny Sawod ), where the last works were completed. In particular, the tires used have been enlarged and made minor modifications to the four-wheel drive. Also, the vehicle received its final designation: Ural-375. In the spring of 1959, further tests were carried out with the revised prototype, whereby also vehicles of the type Ural-375T emerged. These were with foldable windscreen and fully folding side walls suitable for air transport by the military.
Mass production of the trucks began in November 1960 the first ten complete vehicles left the factory on 31 January 1961st NAMI also thoroughly tested these trucks and later confirmed that all planned design requirements were met. Until 1964, only vehicles of the type Ural-375 were built, which still had a weather canopy made of canvas as a roof. Starting this year, the Ural-375D came into series production, the cab is completely constructed of metal. At about the same time appeared with the Ural -377 a civilian version without four-wheel drive. These were factory-fitted from the start for use in Siberia and other remote areas with only an orange painted cab to better locate vehicles from the air. This was essential in case of breakdowns or accidents far away from civilization.In 1977 appeared with the Ural-4320 a much more economical successor to the model with a modern diesel engine. Nevertheless, the Ural-375D and the Ural-4320 have been built in parallel for many years - especially in areas with a predominantly very low temperature, the gasoline engine offers some advantages over the diesel engine.
In 1982, the vehicle family was reworked around the Ural-375D again. The resulting models were built until the early 1990s, then the production gradually reduced. As bottlenecks in the supply of diesel engines for the Ural-4320 came in 1993 due to accidents at the engine supplier KAMAZ in 1993, production was discontinued a little later than planned. At this time, however, the entire range of models was no longer built.
The engine is a V8 four-stroke gasoline engine. Prototypes were given a ZIL-6E129 engine (ЗИЛ-6Э129), which generates an output of 132 kW from a displacement of around 7 liters. In the case of standard vehicles, a motor of the type ZIL-375 (ЗИЛ-375) was used. The ZIL-375 differs only slightly from the ZIL-6E129 with a different carburetor and engine setting; the ZIL-375 has the same rated output of 132 kW (180 hp), but is much more elastic. In the NVA (National People's Army)The engines were throttled to a maximum power of 128 kW (175 hp). The engine has been optimized for maximum rotational speed and consumes about 45 liters per 100 kilometers on the road at a constant speed of 60 km / h. In the field, the consumption can increase to about double, with here also driven with reduction, higher speeds and low gears.
The same engine was also used in the much heavier ZIL-135 . However, the vehicle used two of the engines. Also in the experimental vehicle ZIL-E167 two engines of the type ZIL-375 were installed, which drive just as in the ZIL-135 depending on the wheels of the left or right side.
The Ural-375D has three rigid , permanently driven axles with large single tires and a lockable and transferable transfer case. The high off-road capability is achieved by the typical tires with agricultural tractor profile and the changeable tire pressure during the journey. The truck has a manual five-speed gearbox and a downstream transfer case with two gears. There are effectively ten courses available. All three axes are permanently driven. They are suspended from leaf springs, behind as a bogie double axle , that is, the leaf springs are rotatably mounted in the middle and the axles attached to the ends.
On order and at extra cost, the Ural-375D could be equipped with various additional technology. This included in particular a mounted on the rear winch, which was powered by a branching gear from the engine of the vehicle. With a rope length of 65 m and a rope thickness of 17.5 mm, she was able to apply a maximum force of 70 kN. This corresponds to a freely liftable load of just under seven tonnes. The branch transmission could also be procured separately, 40% of the engine power could be removed from it.
Additional features included a 60-liter auxiliary tank, hydraulics for lowering the spare wheel, heater for the cab and additional seals for various drive components for deep water passages. In addition, a gasoline-powered engine heater 17 kilowatts could be ordered, which acts on the coolant and engine oil. This keeps the vehicle ready to start at extremely low temperatures.
In the more than 30 years in which the Ural-375 was built in series, there were various versions and prototypes.
- Ural-375 - The first version of the vehicle was built from 1961 to 1965 in series. Of the later variants, it differed mainly in that the roof of the cab is not made of sheet steel, but of fabric.
- Ural-375A - chassis for box bodies. The frame was extended by about 30 centimeters and the spare wheel was moved. In addition, a winch and an additional tank was installed.
- Ural-375D - model with revised cabin. In contrast to the first basic model, the roof was now made of steel. Built from 1964 to 1982.
- Ural-375DM - Modernized version of the Ural-375D, built from 1982 to 1991. One -piece rims were used, and the lighting system and side walls were redesigned.
- Ural-375DJu - export version for countries with tropical climate. In particular, electrical lines and seals were used, which are particularly suitable for hot and humid environments.
- Ural-375E - chassis for box bodies, based on the Ural-375D. To gain more space, the spare wheel was moved under the vehicle.
- Ural-375K - special version for particularly cold locations. The vehicle will remain operational until at least -60 ° C. To achieve this, an additional battery, a heater and double glazing was installed. All rubber parts are particularly frost-resistant and an additional searchlight has been mounted on the roof.
- Ural-375N - Civil version without tire pressure regulator and with modified tires. All three sideboards of the platform are foldable executed, the truck was built from 1974 to 1982.
- Ural-375NM - Modernized version of the Ural-375N, built from 1982 to 1991.
- Ural-375S - semitrailer tractor based on the Ural-375 for semi-trailers with a total weight of up to 12 tons. The frame has been shortened by 135 mm.
- Ural-375S-K1 - Tractor based on the Ural-375D. Built from 1974, otherwise similar to the Ural-375S.
- Ural-375SN - Tractor based on the Ural-375N. Semi-trailers up to 18.4 tons can be moved, while in the field up to 12.5 tons. Built from 1974.
- Ural-375T - Experimental version for air transport. Never built in series.
- Ural-375Ju - Based on the Ural-375, for tropical applications. Specially insulated and equipped with appropriate electrical and gaskets.
- Ural 377 - version without four-wheel drive and with a payload of 7.5 tons. Built from 1964 or 1965.
- Ural-377S - Tractor based on the Ural-377. About 30 of them also found their way to the NVA.
- length:7350 mm
- height:2980 mm
- wheelbase:3500 + 1400 mm
- payload:4800 kg
- Total payload mass:13,200 kg
- Top speed: 75 km/h
- Driving range:500-550 km
- Turning circle:21 m
- Engine Type: ZIL-375 design Eight-cylinder four-stroke
- Engine cooling: liquid-cooled
- Induction:Quad carburetor type K-89A
- Engine power:132 kW (180 hp)
- Engine displacement:6959 cm 3
- Bore × stroke:108 × 95 mm
- compression ratio:6.5: 1
- Firing order:1-5-4-2-6-3-7-8
- Drive:permanent four-wheel drive, 6 × 6
- clutch:Two disc dry clutch
- Gearbox:JaMZ -204U, mechanical, five gears + R-gear
- Axle ratio: 8.90
- Batteries:12V, 140 Ah
- starter:80 Amp
- headlights:H4 halogen 55/65 watts, waterproof