Scania AB History
Automotive manufacturer of Sweden from 1912 on.
The Scania AB is a manufacturer of commercial vehicles , buses - and industrial engines based in the Sweden 1911 the two companies were merged to create Scania-Vabis, today known as Scania AB Previous as Maskinfabriks AB Scania, translates to Machine Factory Limited Company Scania till 1911.
Prior to the merger in 1911, predecessor Scania had already offered trucks for 1.5 tonnes of payload and Vabis had already offered them for 2 to 3 tonnes of payload. Before the First World War, the range already reached up to 6 tonnes payload, for those days a high value. For the military operation first vehicles with drive on both axles emerged, which were offered later also civil and could be combined since the middle of the 1920 years with an additional drive-less axle to a three-axle.
In 1919, production was mainly switched from cars to trucks. But since demand for trucks was low in the post- World War I era and there was a strong deflation , Scania was insolvent in 1921 . In the same year the enterprise was re-established maintaining the name. The last passenger cars were produced in 1929.
Since 1968, the commercial vehicles were sold under the name Scania without the addition of Vabis. 1969 Scania was the Swedish Saab taken Corporation and has since been a division of the now as a Saab-Scania trading under the name Group. In 1995, the Saab Scania merger was dissolved. Both companies operate independently since then. In 1999, the Swedish competitor Volvo tried to take over Scania. However, this was prohibited by the antitrust authorities, as a dominant position was expected in Northern Europe. Thereafter, the Volkswagen Group with a participation in the company. In 2000, the one millionth vehicle was manufactured.
On December 24, 2008, MAN AG acquired stock options and announced that it now holds more than 20% of the voting rights in Scania. As a result of the majority takeover of Porsche SE by Volkswagen AG , Porsche acquired indirect control of Scania, which made a mandatory offer necessary. Porsche was offered 4.4 million A shares and 59.04 million B shares, which were immediately passed on to Volkswagen. On November 9, 2011, Volkswagen AG acquired the majority of MAN SE . Including MAN's shares in Scania, Volkswagen AG holds a majority stake in the company with 62.6% of the capital and 89.2% of the voting rights.
First attempts with diesel engines began 1927, but only in the year 1936 the first own diesel engines after a license of the Humboldt Deutz AG in the series were used. While until then only hood cars were manufactured, appeared in 1932 first cabs - buses and 1933 cab driver trucks, both received because of their appearance the nickname "Bulldog". However, the production of the cab drivers trucks were discontinued in the late 1930s.
In 1944, models Scania-Vabis F 10 and L 10 brought out new models for a total weight of 8 to 9 tons, soon to be supplemented by the heavier L 20 and LS 20.Until the 1950s, production shifted more and more to heavy vehicles as well as buses. Already in the 1950s, engines with direct injection were built according to license by Leyland , it followed like its competitor MAN first attempts with turbocharging. Important models of this time were from 1949 the type L 40 for 9 to 10 tons total weight, the L 60 for 10 to 12 tons and the LS 60 for 16 tons.
From 1953 renewed Scania again the model range, the models L 51, L 71 and LS 71 appeared in the known weight classes. The types were revised from 1958 and received more powerful engines, to a new, concise appearance, which the hood cars should at least partially retain until the early 80s. According to the introduced scheme, they were now called L 55, LS 55, L 75 and LS 75. The 1961 introduced LS 75 received a standard turbo engine with over 200 hp, then a considerable value. Previously, the S in the model designation generally for the heavier versions, it was replaced by the phrase "super", later appeared in the Scania nomenclature S as an addition for semi- tractors .
As early as 1963, the engine power was further increased, the models were now called L 56 and L 76 (Super). In 1963, in addition to the general trend late in following, again introduced a front handlebar model in the heavy class, the model LB 76 (Super). The L was still for trucks, the B was borrowed from the previously used term "Bulldog" for the Scania cabs of the 1930s. The cab drivers followed so far quite late, as they had a long time in the ancestral markets of Scania had no meaning. The design was still the 1950s taste and was slightly round, while European competitors and the domestic competitor Volvoalready edged, so-called cubic cabsoffered. 1964 was followed by the L 36 for the first time again a truck of the middle weight class for 10 tons total weight.
In 1968, the traditional double name "Scania-Vabis" fell away, which had previously been seen as a logo on the vehicles. From now on, only Scania was left on the radiator grille. In the same year, a new cab for the heavy cab appeared, which was now styled box-shaped. The most striking feature of Scania's cab-drivers was and still is the wide crossbeams on the vehicle front, which were not uncontroversial as a design. The cabin design was nevertheless so advanced that it continued with small retouchings throughout the construction period of the successor, the series with the final digits 1, to 1980.
At the same time a change of the hitherto more arbitrary type designations on the system valid in principle up to 2004 took place. The first digit in two-digit designations and the first two in three-digit numbers from now on approximately the cubic capacity of the engine in liters again, the rear digit of the generation from which the vehicle originated in 1968 with the number 0. Thus, the L 36 to L 50, the L 56 to the L 80 and the L 76 to the L 110. A heavy truck of the time would therefore have been about a Scania LBS 110 Super, broken down truck (L), front handlebar (B), axle configuration 6 × 2 with liftable Towing axle (S), 11-liter engine of the 0 (110) plus "Super" for turbocharging. A three-axle with two driven axles (6 × 4) had a "T" for the double axle aggregate ("tandemdriven") in the type designation. After the type designation the wheelbase was given with two decimal numbers, whereupon z. B. could close to use as a tractor, z. B. LBS 110 S (uper) 34.
In 1969 there were two other noteworthy innovations. The top-of-the-range model, the LB 110 type LB 350, with 350 hp, was a top European model. German mass producers persisted until well into the 1970s at 320 hp maximum output, apart from Magirus-Deutz , where from the models 340D16 and 340D22 with 340 hp were on offer. The Scania LB 140 was initially only as a front handlebar on offer. At the same time, a cab for the middle-class L and now also LB 80, similar to the large types, appeared, which until now had only been available as a hood car.
From 1972, the strongest engine was also offered in hood car models L 140. While for the models L 80 and L 110 continue the previous cabin and the old hood were made, the L 140 received a new house and visually striking a new one-piece bonnet, which could be folded together with the front fenders in one piece. This model was built until 1976.
1974 took place with the front handlebars and the smaller hood cars the change to the series 1. From the LB 110 was so the LB 111th optically did not do much. The Hauber remained unchanged, in the cabs, the rectangular headlights in the bumper were replaced by round over the bumper, from the L 55 became the L 56. The reason for the transition to Series 1 was the introduction of a new, again uprated engine generation. The heavy Hauber mutated only in 1976 for the L 141, this year, the maximum engine power in the Scania program increased to 375 hp. In the next few years, most of the detail improvements followed.
In 1980, it came to another generation change to the series 2. The most common models were now 82, 112 and 142. With a renewed, sometimes considerable increase in performance was accompanied by a renewal of the cabs, both with hoods and cabs. The design was compared to its predecessors a little more edged, the distinctive crossbars were now also the weaker hood vehicles and the front of the front handlebars vertical windshield was now placed slightly obliquely. While the front handlebars, like the technology, had previously been built on a modular system of as many identical parts as possible, this was consistently expanded in the new models. The old hood cars, dating back to the late 1950s, disappeared, the driver's cabs of hoods and cabs were identical. The lighter front-wheel-drive trucks as well as the lighter hoods were set a bit lower, making them optically a bit off the top model. While the number system of the model designations remained, fell for the front handlebars the designation LB (which, however, was never written to the vehicles, there were so far only the three-digit numbers) away, the hood cars were internally the addition T in front of the number. Behind the numbers, and now also on the outside of the vehicles readable, new code letters were introduced for the frame capacity, for the long-distance trucks about M for medium (medium), H for heavy and E for extra heavy. While the T stood for the hood car in front of the numeric type designation, there were the following characteristics for the height of the driver's cab:
Now the product development has calmed down. Worth mentioning in 1982 is a new 14-liter displacement V8 engine with 420 hp, which actually represented the top engine in European long-distance transport. Until then, this had been contrary to the Scania advertising in the M-915 of the US Army, with Cummins NTC-400 (294 kW) and the double-clutch, pneumatic-shifted 16-speed gearbox 7155 from Caterpillar. (Configured as a 38-ton vehicle, these vehicles were part of the usual streetscape on German motorways in the 1970s, especially between Bremerhaven and the then vast number of American barracks.)
In 1984 Scania was the first European truck manufacturer to launch an electronic shift aid under the name CAG ( Computer Aided Gearshift) .
1988 came the change to the series 3. Analogous to the introduction of the series 1 starting from 1974 again the technology was revised, the still current cabs remained externally largely unchanged, however inside were redesigned. Optionally, a high roof was available ex-works for the heavy-duty trucks.
In addition to the in the direction of travel on the right inside mounted next to the headlights type numbers, as they already had the series 0 to 2, since the beginning of the series 3 rounded to 10 engine power next to the left in the direction of headlights was mounted to the few basic models still to have another external differentiator. For the Series 2 vehicles, only the top models had previously shown a "V8" logo to indicate the large, state-laden engine. The presentation would be about Scania R 113 MA 4 × 2 A 380 for a pneumatic suspension two-axle semitrailer tractor of the third series with high cab (short or long) and 11-liter engine and 380 hp.
In 1989, the engine power of the top model was increased to up to 470 hp, in 1992 in the type Scania 143 for the first time reached the 500-horsepower mark. Optionally, dragline-optimized cabs were launched on the market under the nickname "Streamline", which slightly smoothed out the striking, edgy exterior, fitted roof spoilers and wind deflectors as standard and resulted in slightly lower fuel consumption.
1995 was another generation change, now on the 4 Series. Overall, the cabin design was plumper. Both the outer edges of the cab and the bumpers were rounded and aerodynamic styled, the windshield, however, rose again steeply. The same innovations also experienced the T-Hauber, who now played only a minor role. There were two short-and medium-height public transport cabins, two hood cabs for local and long-distance traffic, and three low-mid and high-roof cabins for long-haul cabins.
Also with the engines the offer range was extended. In 1998, new engines were available with capacities of 9, 11, 12 and 14 liters between 230 and 530 hp. In 2000, the engines were again increased performance. A 16-liter engine with 580 hp was added. Scania has been offering its most powerful truck since 2010 with a 16.4-liter 730 hp V8 engine. In Europe, for example, Volvo, MAN and Mercedes-Benz are offering equally powerful machines. However, the strongest engines of the respective manufacturers hardly play a role in the sales figures.