Lancia Gamma Berlina range and history
|Vehicle technical details|
|Production:||1976 to 1982|
|Maximum speed:||180-190 km / h|
|Body and chassis|
|Body styles:||Fastback saloon (berlina)|
|Engine and Powertrain|
|Engine Type:||Four-cylinder boxer engine|
|Engine power:||120-140 hp (89-103 kW)|
|Transmission:||5-speed manual,4-speed auto|
|Brakes:||front and rear disc brakes|
|Fuel system:||Double downflow Weber|
|Weights and Dimensions|
The Lancia Gamma was produced by the Turin car manufacturer Lancia , The sedan and the coupe were presented in March 1976 at the 46th Geneva Motor Show . While the sedan was shortly after the presentation to the dealers, the coupe was delivered from March 1977.which was offered between March 1976 and August 1984.
The Gamma was Lancia's last series, which used almost no components of the Italian mass-produced manufacturer Fiat . The technically idiosyncratic models were not widely used, because they acquired the reputation of great unreliability early on. The Lancia Gamma Coupe is today a sought-after .
The development of the Gamma began in the fall of 1970, a year after Lancia was taken over by Fiat majority. Intra-brand, the model was intended directly as a replacement for the Flavia and the Lancia 2000 ; Lancia, however, saw it also in the tradition of 1967 Flaminia , which had been a more higher class car.Related to the parent company Fiat, the gamma was also seen as an indirect successor to the Fiat 130 . Since 1969, Fiat had tried to be present in the upper middle class with its own model - the 130 -. Lancia, however, had at that time no own model in the displacement class over 2.0 liters on offer.The sedan and the coupe were presented in March 1976 at the 46th Geneva Motor Show . While the sedan was shortly after the presentation to the dealers, the coupe was delivered from March 1977.
As early as 1970, it became apparent that the Fiat 130, regardless of its qualities, was not accepted by the buyers. This was largely due to the brand name, which was primarily associated with low-cost, low-volume mass-produced vehicles.Fiat therefore decided to withdraw its brand from the upper middle class and this class continue to operate solely by the renowned brand Lancia. Accordingly, the production of the Fiat 130 ended almost simultaneously with the launch of the Lancia Gamma.
After the original conception, the new big Lancia was to be developed together with Citroën . Lancia's parent company Fiat had signed a cooperation agreement with the French automobile manufacturer in 1968, which included the joint development of technical components.
The collaboration with Citroën lasted until 1972. During this time, Lancia and the French company developed a number of components that the new large Lancia and the successor to the Citroën DS - the CX - should equally use. From Citroën came about the hydropneumatic suspension of the rear wheels; Also some parts of the underbody should be interchangeable. In the early years, several prototypes of gamma were created, which were equipped with Citroën's hydropneumatics. In 1972, the cooperation between the two companies ended after intervention by the French government.
After the separation from Citroën Lancia's development department, which was headed by Sergio Camuffo, had to start in many parts anew. The Citroën components had to be replaced by their own designs. Although Lancia mostly resorted to parts that were already used in the recently presented mid- size model Beta , led the separation of Citroën but to delay the development by nearly two years.
The basic concept, which had already been developed in the phase of the Italian-French cooperation, however, changed the Lancia technicians no more: The new large Lancia was a four-door hatchback with long front overhang, small trunk lid and three side windows. In that regard, the Lancia Gamma had significant conceptual similarity to the later Citroën CX. Other design features were similar to the CX.
Unlike Citroën Lancia his limousine from the outset a coupe with independent body aside, which had the technical characteristics of the Berlina in common.
The gamma had front-wheel drive like the Flavia and 2000, but unlike the Flaminia. This interpretation was rare in the 1970s in the automotive upper class, front-wheel drive was only available from Citroën and General Motors . First, Lancia wanted to equip the new model with a six-cylinder V-engine. Abarth had constructed a prototype for this purpose. In the end, however, the engineers refrained from doing so because the engine was too big and required a long front overhang.
Instead, the gamma received a boxer engine with four cylinders. The design was based in its basic features on the engine of the Flavia, but was largely redesigned or at least greatly revised. Other than the piston engine of the Flavia, with two underlying camshaft , the engine of the gamma had two overhead camshafts with toothed belt drive . Engine block with wet liners and cylinder heads were made of aluminum. The strengths of this design, were its compactness, low weight of 135 kg for the 2.5 liter engine , low center of gravity and the front-wheel drive , which resulted very good driving characteristics.
For the Italian market was provided a 2.0-liter version of the engine, which made 88 kW (120 hp); European export markets, however, received a version with 2.5 liters and 103 kW (140 hp). The engine was mounted longitudinally and connected in series with a manual five-speed gearbox; alternatively, a three-speed automatic wasavailable, which was purchased from the British supplier Automotive Products (AP).
The engine was technically immature and had some serious design flaws. So the seats of the wet cylinder liners were too soft, so the liners seeped into the block, which in turn eased the tension on the cylinder head gasket, mixing oil and cooling water, water loss and overheating the engines. The camshafts had no static lubricating oil supply, so they ran dry after starting to the onset of an oil supply in the cylinder head at their friction surfaces to the rocker arms, which was a very high wear at these points occurred. The oil pump of the power steering was driven by a V-belt of one of the camshafts. This resulted in only a few engines making a mileage of 100,000 kilometers or more.
With the facelift in the spring of 1980, the 2.5-liter version of the Boxer engine instead of the previously used Weber carburetor received a fuel injection of the LE-Jetronic type from Bosch . The engine power did not increase as a result; however, the driveability of the engine improved and gas mileage dropped. In addition, the engines were much more reliable, which was also attributable to the better materials in the camshaft.
The hatchback body of the Gamma Sedan had been designed by Pininfarina ; executive designer was Leonardo Fioravanti .
His design was the further development of a study that Pininfarina had developed in 1967 for British car manufacturer British Motor Corporation (BMC). The 1967 presented in Turin as BMC 1800 Berlinetta Aerodinamica already had a hatchback body with heavily glazed passenger compartment and carried a basic layout, which later (more clearly than the Lancia Gamma) also found in the designed by Robert Opron the Citroën CX.
The hatchback shape of the Gamma sedan allowed low air resistance The proportions were unusual. The rear side windows were very narrow, but the D-pillars were wider. The triangular rear lights were exceptional for the time.
The interiors of the Gamma were handled by Pierro Stroppa, who also designed the interior of the Lamborghini Miura . Stoppa worked on the dashboard and on the side panels with large plastic parts; the colors were striking and contrasting.The standard scope of supply included electrically adjustable exterior mirrors, a height-adjustable steering wheel and automatically adjusting headlamps.
In early 1980, a major facelift took place, recognizable especially by a modified front end and new alloy wheels. Thus, the chrome frame used in the radiator grille with continuing beads in the bonnet and was replaced by a wider grille, which took up the entire space between the headlights in claiming.
The interior has also been redesigned. Instead of the eye-catching colors of the first series, restrained tones were now available; a leather interior could be delivered on request.Also, the rust prevention was from now on much better. The economic failure could not be averted by these improvements and upgrades.