|1974 to 1990|
|Assembly||Sant'Agata Bolognese, Italy|
|Designer||Marcello Gandini at Bertone|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||2-door coupé|
|Layout||Rear mid-engine, rear-wheel drive|
|Engine||V12 engine |
LP400, LP400S: 3929 cc
LP500S: 4754 cc
5000QV, 25th Anniversary: 5167 cc
|Wheelbase||96.46 in (2,450 mm)|
|Length||162.99 in (4,140 mm)|
|Height||42.13 in (1,070 mm)|
The Lamborghini Countach is a mid-engined supercar that was produced by Italian automaker Lamborghini from 1974 to 1990. Its design both pioneered and popularized the wedge-shaped, sharply angled look popular in many high-performance sports cars. The "cabin-forward" design concept, which pushes the passenger compartment forward in order to accommodate a larger engine, was also popularized by the Countach.
In 2004, American car magazine Sports Car International named the car number three on the list of Top Sports Cars of the 1970s, and it was listed as number ten on their list of Top Sports Cars of the 1980s.
The word countach is an exclamation of astonishment in the local Piedmontese language.
The prototype was introduced to the world at the 1971 Geneva Motor Show. Most previous and subsequent Lamborghini car names were associated with bulls and bullfighting.
The Countach was styled by Marcello Gandini of the Bertone design studio, the same designer and studio that designed the Miura. Gandini was then a young, inexperienced designer — not very experienced in the practical, ergonomic aspects of automobile design, but at the same time unhindered by them. Gandini produced a striking design. The Countach shape was wide and low (42.1 inches (1.07 m)), but not very long (only 163 inches (4.1 m)). Its angular and wedge-shaped body was made almost entirely of flat, trapezoidal panels.
The doors, a Lamborghini trademark first started with the Countach, were scissor doors: hinged at the front with horizontal hinges, so that they lifted up and tilted forwards. The main reason is the car's tubular spaceframe chassis results in very high and wide door sills. It was also partly for style, and partly because the width of the car made conventional doors impossible to use in an even slightly confined space. Care needed to be taken, though, in opening the doors with a low roof overhead. The car's poor rear visibility and wide sills led to drivers adopting a method of reversing the car for parking by opening the door, sitting on the sill, and reversing while looking over the back of the car from outside.
The pure style of the prototype was progressively altered by the evolution of the car to improve its performance, handling, tractability, and ability to meet mandated requirements. This began with the first production model, which included several vents which were found to be necessary to cool the engine adequately. These included the iconic NACA duct on the door and rear fender of each side of the car. The car design changes ended with a large engine vent directly behind the driver, reducing the rear view. Later additions, including fender flares, spoilers, carburetor covers, and bumpers, progressively changed the aesthetic values of the car.
The Countach's styling and visual impression caused it to become an icon of great design to almost everyone except automotive engineers. The superior performance characteristics of later Lamborghini models (such as the Diablo, or the Murciélago) appealed to performance car drivers and engineers, but they never had the originality or outrageousness that gave the Countach its distinction. The different impressions left by the various Lamborghini models have generated numerous debates and disagreements over what constitutes "classic" or "great" automotive design (elegant looks and style, versus technical and engineering superiority).
The rear wheels were driven by a traditional Lamborghini V12 engine mounted longitudinally with a mid-engined configuration. This contrasted with the Miura, on which the centrally mounted engine had been installed transversely. For better weight distribution, the engine is pointed "backwards"; the output shaft is at the front, and the gearbox is in front of the engine, the driveshaft running back through the engine's sump to a differential at the rear. Although originally planned as a 5 L (310 cu in) powerplant, the first production cars used the Lamborghini Miura's 4-liter engine. Later advances increased the displacement to 4754 cc and then (in the "Quattrovalvole" model) 5167 cc with four valves per cylinder.
All Lamborghini Countaches were equipped with six Weber carburetors until the arrival of the 5000QV model, at which time the car became available in America, and used Bosch K-Jetronic fuel injection. The European models, however, continued to use the carburetors (producing more power than fuel-injected cars) until the arrival of the Lamborghini Diablo, which replaced the Countach.
The Countach used a skin of aircraft-grade aluminium over a tubular space frame, as in a racing car. Although expensive to build, it is immensely strong and very light; despite its size, the car weighs approximately 1,400 kg (3,100 lb)).The underbody tray was fiberglass.
Prototype LP 500
A single prototype was built, the LP 500 (the 500 standing for the 5.0 L (310 cu in) displacement of the engine which was intended to be used). Painted bright sunflower yellow, the concept car proved to be a stunner at the Geneva Motor Show in 1971. Sporting Gandini's original design concepts, the car's design required extensive modification in order to qualify for mass-production. In particular, a pair of debossed air-intake ducts (of what can only be described as gill-like in appearance) situated on the car's rear 'shoulders', in which proved insufficient to cool the engine, resulting in the replacement and introduction of "air box" scoops in-place, extending out from the vehicle's streamlined body. Aluminium-honeycomb sheeting, a concept among others interpreted into the design, was dropped in preparation for production.
The car did not survive; it was sacrificed in a crash test at MIRA facility to gain European type approval, even though its construction method was utterly unlike production vehicles.
The Countach entered production as the LP 400 with a 3929 cc engine delivering 375 metric horsepower (276 kW; 370 hp). The first production Countach was delivered to an Australian in 1974. Externally, little had altered from the final form of the prototype except at the rear, where conventional lights replaced the futuristic light clusters of the prototype. The styling had become rather more aggressive than Gandini's original conception, with the required large air scoops and vents to keep the car from overheating, but the overall shape was still very sleek. The original LP 400 rode on the quite narrow tires of the time, but their narrowness and the slick styling meant that this version had the lowest drag coefficient of any Countach model. The emblems at the rear simply read "lamborghini" and "Countach", with no engine displacement or valve arrangement markings as is found on later cars. By the end of 1977, the company had produced 158 Countach LP 400s.
In recent years the original LP 400 has become collectable, and in an auction in June 2014, a 1975 model sold for GB£953,500 at Bonhams' Goodwood Festival of Speed auction.
In 1978, a new LP 400S model was introduced. Though the engine was slightly downgraded from the LP 400 model (355 PS), the most radical changes were in the exterior, where the tires were replaced with much wider Pirelli P7 units, and fiberglass wheel arch extensions were added, giving the car the fundamental look it kept until the end of its production run. An optional V-shaped spoiler was available over the rear deck, which, while improving high-speed stability, reduced the top speed by at least 10 miles per hour (16 km/h). Most owners ordered the wing. The handling of the LP 400S was improved by the wider tires which made the car more stable in cornering. Aesthetically, some prefer the slick lines of the original while others prefer the more aggressive lines of the later models, beginning with the LP 400S. The standard emblems ("Lamborghini" and "Countach") were kept at the rear, but an angular "S" emblem was added after the "Countach" on the right side.
There are three distinct Countach LP 400S Series:
- Series One: The first 50 cars delivered with Campagnolo "Bravo" wheels in 1978 and 1979. The very early 1978 cars had the original LP 400 steering wheel. Small Stewart Warner gauges, 45 millimetres (1.8 in) carburettors and a lowered suspension (lowbody) setting is a trademark feature of this celebrated first series. Halfway through 1979's production, bigger gauges were employed. 50 cars were built and the last one is noted to be 1121100*.
- Series Two: These cars are recognized by their smooth finish dished/concave wheels, and still retain the lowbody setting. 105 cars were built and the last one is noted to be 1121310*.
- Series Three: It is claimed that from chassis number 1121312 onwards, the cockpit space available was raised by 3 cm (1.2 in). These cars are recognized by their raised suspension setting. 82 cars were built, and the last one is noted to be 1121468*.
1982 saw another improvement, this time giving a bigger, more powerful 4754 cc engine. The bodywork was unaltered. This version of the car is sometimes called the LP 5000S, which may cause confusion with the later 5000QV (next section). 323 cars were built.
In 1985 the engine was improved again, bored and stroked to 5167 cc and given four valves per cylinder (quattrovalvole in Italian). The carburetors were moved from the sides to the top of the engine for better breathing—unfortunately this created a hump on the engine deck, reducing the already poor rear visibility to almost nothing. Some body panels were also replaced by Kevlar. In later versions of the engine, the carburettors were replaced with fuel-injection.
For the first time, a US specification model was produced by the factory, with styling changes to allow bumpers to meet US federal safety standards. Many owners however, had those bumpers removed immediately, or never had them installed at all, as the bulky looking addition to the car was said to ruin the otherwise smooth lines of the body. Although this change was the most notable on the exterior, the most prominent change under the hood was the introduction of rule injection, with the Bosch K-Jetronic fuel injection, providing 414 bhp (309 kW; 420 PS), rather than the six Weber carburetors providing 455 bhp (339 kW; 461 PS) used in the previous carbureted models. The 1985 US model had a base price close to $100,000. Only two optional extras were available: a $5,500 aerodynamic spoiler and a $7,500 sound system. As for other markets, 1987 and 1988 model Quattrovalvoles received straked sideskirts. 610 cars were built.
25th Anniversary Countach
Named to honour the company's twenty-fifth anniversary, in 1988, the 25th Anniversary Countach, although mechanically very similar to the 5000QV, sported considerable restyling. Notably, restyling, enlargement and extension of the rear 'air-box' intake-ducts was among other refinements undertaken (extending them to a more gradual incline further in-keeping with aerodynamic-streamlining), while the secondary pair of debossed ducts, originally situated further behind them, were brought forward and relocated directly on top, encompassing refashioned fins now running longitudinally rather than transversely. Additionally, further reconstruction of an already modified engine-bay cover, from a concept consisting of dual-raised sections and tri-ducting, to one which embodies a centre-raised section incorporating dual-ducting become another feature. Various redevelopments to the rear-end were made; most notably the introduction of a rear bumper extending outwardly from the lower-portion. The styling changes were unpopular with many; particularly as a result of features such as the introduction of fin strakes incorporated within the openings of the primary rear-intake-ducts, of which appeared to mimic those of the Ferrari Testarossa, although crucially providing improved engine cooling, a problem the Countach had previously always struggled with. It also featured 345/35R15 tyres; the widest tyres available on a production car at the time. The Anniversary edition was produced up until 1990 before being superseded by the Lamborghini Diablo.
The 25th Anniversary Edition was the most popular, most refined, and possibly the fastest edition of the Lamborghini Countach: 0–60 miles per hour (0–97 km/h) in 4.7 seconds and 183 miles per hour (295 km/h) all out.
Walter Wolf Countach
In 1975, Walter Wolf, a wealthy Canadian businessman and owner of the Wolf F1 Racing team in the 1970s, purchased an LP 400; however, he was not satisfied with the LP 400's engine and asked Gianpaolo Dallara, the chief engineer of Lamborghini at that time, to create a special high-power version of the Countach. It was the "code No. 1120148" Walter Wolf special with an engine identical to the 5.0 L (310 cu in) engine from the Countach LP500 prototype, which produced 447 horsepower (333 kW) at 7900 rpm and reached a supposed maximum speed of 315 or 323.6 km/h (195.7 or 201.1 mph). This model also featured the upgraded wheels, Pirelli P7 tires, large fender flares, and front and rear spoilers of the LP 400S model. It was painted red with black fender flares, and was designated "LP 500S" like the standard Countach model from the 1980s, and was the stepping stone that led to this later production model. Two other Wolf Countaches were produced, one painted blue, No. 1120202 (currently in Germany) and one navy blue, No. 1121210. (This machine was owned by Wolf for a long time, but was eventually sold.) Both of the later Wolf Countaches used the original 5.0 L (310 cu in) engine commissioned by Wolf, transplanted to each car in turn.
A total of 2,042 cars were built during the Countach's sixteen-year lifetime:
|Prototype||LP 400||LP 400S||LP 500S||LP 5000QV||25 Anniversary|
Substantially more than half were built in the final five years of production, as Lamborghini's new corporate owners increased production.