Hyundai KIA U diesel engine
|Hyundai / KIA engines|
|Manufacturer:||Hyundai / KIA|
|Production period:||2004 to today|
|Style:||Row end cylinder /four-cylinder|
|Engines:||1.1 L (1120 cc) /
1.4 L (1396 cc) /
1.5 L (1493 cc)
1.6 L (1582 cc)
|Cylinder firing order:||1-3-2 / 1-3-4-2|
|Previous model:||1.5: Hyundai KIA D|
Hyundai KIA U is a series of four-cylinder diesel engines and one of the 1.5 -l model on three cylinders reduced the same technology. The engines have direct injection , turbocharger and two overhead camshafts ( DOHC ) and four valves per cylinder. The engines are Hyundai / KIA in Ulsan ( South Korea ) and, since 2007 up to 1.1 and 1.5 L for Europe in Zilina ( Slovakia made) The construction of an Indian Engine plant for the U-series in Irrungattukatoiwas announced in 2009, then rejected and should now be decided in early 2011.
The engine block is made of cast iron and its cylinder head is made of aluminum . Base engine is the 1.5 L with a bore of 75 mm and a stroke of 84.5 mm. The 1.1 L added in 2006 has the same dimensions, but as the only one of the series only three cylinders, the 1.6 L of 2005, the hole was enlarged to 77.2 mm. The 1.7 L supplemented in 2010 still increases the stroke to 90.0 mm on this basis. The 1.4 L released in the same year finally reduces the stroke to 79 and the bore again to that of the 1.5 L with 75 mm. The 1.5 L weighs 157 kg only 14 percent more than the 1.1 L with 140.4 kg, although he has a quarter more displacement and power. Also contributes to the balance shaftof the three-cylinder which has no other engine of the series. Of these, in addition to the 1.5 L, also no weights have been published. The same applies to the idle speed of the entire series.
The power transmission from the crankshaft to the camshaft is done by means of timing chain .The exception is the 1.6 L with 90 hp to summer 2007, which received a timing belt . The ancillary units are driven by a serpentine belt His inspection is provided all 20,000 km or 12 months, his replacement when required.
The valves are operated by roller rocker arms, which act like a rocker. At the vertex of the cam is on. During its rotation, it pushes one side and thus two valves downwards, while on the other, the hydraulic tappet, which extends by means of a built-in spring, always lies flush . This form of valve clearance compensation is maintenance-free, even an inspection is not provided in the maintenance plan. Wear would be signaled by a ticking noise.
The U series debuted in December 2004 in the Hyundai Matrix in 1.5 l version with 102 hp. However, this was more of a pre-series, as already in March 2005, it was extensively updated and appeared with 110 hp in the KIA Rio . Yet still received in July 2005, the Kia Cerato the old version. Less than time, the revision on the basis of a power equal to 102 hp is therefore evident, because it was followed by a 75-hp version where this country related tax or insurance savings for the buyer promised to and finally a 88-hp Variant for the Hyundai Getz in August 2005.From the original 102 hp version, all three differ in injection pressure. This increased from 1350 to 1600 bar, the exhaust gas recirculation is also cooled, electronically controlled and the incoming air is spin-controlled . Overall, these measures clean up the 110-hp version at Euro 4 level, even without the optional, open particulate filter. The 102-hp version filled euro. 3
The 1.6 -l variant debuted in June 2005 in the KIA Cerato with 116 hp. It corresponds to the technical state of the 1.5 L with 110 HP and is its drilled version. However, it only became noticeable when the KIA cee'd was launched in December 2006. In addition, the 90 hp version of the engine was added on this occasion. This differs from all other diesel engines in the series by initially using a timing belt . From the summer of 2007, the start of sales of the Hyundai i30 , but it was then also produced with timing chain . First the U2 series brought innovations for this engine, where he is also the only one who was taken directly into this. In 2011 he was followed by the three-cylinder, which also completed the second series.
In November 2005, a three-cylinder completed the first series. He corresponded to the number of cylinders, the 1.5 L in 110-horsepower version and holds it with 1.1 L. The only change is the addition of a balance shaft to counteract by the non-round number of cylinders as well as uneven run. It is integrated in the oil sump. In addition counteract the vibrations at the crankshaft all underground motors lattenrost shaped struts.
The U-series is the first jointly developed by Hyundai / KIA diesel series after their merger in 1999. In the D-series presented in 2000 was with VM Motori still an external partner significantly involved. The European Powertrain Center in Rüsselsheim was also inaugurated with the U series.
For faster heating of the interior vehicles with U-motors have an electric heater ( PTC ). This is mounted in the air stream and heats it as needed via an electrical resistance. This achieves a much faster heating than a diesel engine alone or with a heater for the cooling water circuit could afford.Such a cooling water heater, however, has the advantage essential part of a heater to be which could be retrofitted so inexpensive. The built-in electric heater, however, requires a complete heater kit.
The direct injection takes place via nozzles reaching from above into the cylinder. The nozzles are supplied by a fuel line for all cylinders ( Common Rail ), in which the diesel with 250 to 1350 bar (102 PS version) or up to 1600 bar is pending (all others). The latter figure shows that they are systems of the first ("CRS1" with 1350 bar) and second ("CRS2" with 1600 bar) Bosch generation.The increased pressure leads to more homogeneous mixture formation and thus less oxygen-rich, nitric oxide-producing and oxygen-poor, soot-producing nests. The number of injections per ignition process was increased. Instead of the pilot injection that follows a main injection just before the ignition timing, the pilot fuel amount is divided into two injections, which may follow two post-injections after the main charge as needed. This subdivision improves the running culture as the combustion process in the cylinder is prolonged. In addition, smaller amounts of fuel are distributed better in the cylinder. This in turn reduces soot and nitrogen oxides. The post-injections are used for the partial combustion of resulting soot particles.
This effect is supported by the swirl control of the intake duct. One of the two intake valves of each cylinder is allowed to medium load. Thus, by narrowing the smaller amount of air at smaller load swirled just as strong as the flowing through two valves full load air flow. This swirl control is done by means of "swirl control valve". A strong turbulence is necessary in order to distribute the diesel, which has only just been added in the compression stroke, as evenly as possible and thus to burn it residue-free.
This series has no soot filtration or nitrogen oxide reduction in exhaust aftertreatment. This consists only of an oxidation catalyst , which replaces the usual there three-way catalyst due to the high amounts of oxygen in the exhaust gas comparison to the gasoline engine. Unlike this, he passes the nitrogen oxides and works as a two-way catalyst. Like its counterpart, it uses oxygen to process carbon monoxide (CO) into carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and hydrocarbons (HC) into carbon dioxide and water. The nitrogen oxides are left out, since due to the excess of oxygen that first reacts with the carbon monoxide (2 CO + O 2 to 2 CO 2). Thus, this carbon monoxide is no longer the nitrogen oxides (NO x ) available for reduction in pure nitrogen (CO and NO to N 2 and CO 2
The 1.5- and 1.6-l engines of this series have been equipped with a particulate filter in some markets, including Germany, and for some models (Hyundai Matrix 2008, i30 and KIA cee'd from the beginning) . Where he was offered, he was standard. It was only for the 1.6 L with 116 hp consistently a closed system available, the 90-horsepower variant received until December 2008, an open, the 1.5 -l engine only this. The filter is preceded by an oxidation catalyst in the same housing. Both were developed at the European Group Powertrain Center in Rüsselsheim.In contrast to open systems, the closed type can not be retrofitted, as the motor must detect the fill level of the filter via a sensor and regenerate it if necessary. The filter performance increases from around 30% to more than 95% of the particle mass. The same applies to the number of particularly relevant nanoparticles . The degradation of the particles takes place in two stages. Passive regeneration is an oxidation of soot filtrate. This works only at exhaust gas temperatures, as they come on longer highway trips. In this case, by means of NO 2 formed in the oxidation catalyst from 200 ° C., soot particles in the filter are oxidized to CO 2 . The excess nitrogen dioxide escapes. An active regeneration must intervene if this temperature is not reached and the filter is filled to about 45% of its capacity. Then, the engine control artificially manufactures a temperature of 600 ° C by injecting diesel directly after ignition, resulting in no additional power but the required exhaust gas temperatures.The consumption increases by three to eight percent (depending on the frequency), the soot is burned here. From the soot filtrate remains after the active regeneration some ash in the filter, this is designed for a durability of 240,000 km.The regeneration takes about 25 minutes without stop-and-go traffic at a speed of over 2000 rpm from third gear. If these trips remain off, flashing from 75% of the filter level a warning light in the cockpit, which refers to the driver to a necessary regeneration. If it continues to flash after the described drive, consult a workshop that performs the regeneration. If this also fails, there is a risk of damaging the particle filter, which, like all closed ones, does not have a pressure relief valve.
The diesel-typical lean operation and exhaust gas recirculation of these engines also reduce soot . From exhaust gas temperatures of 200 ° C and the oxidation catalyst contributes to this. These are achieved during longer load phases as on highway drives. From 200 ° C is formed in the oxidation catalyst of nitrogen monoxide and the abundant oxygen, nitrogen dioxide (2 NO + O 2 to 2 NO 2 ). This is reduced by the absorption of soot (carbon, C) into harmless nitrogen and carbon dioxide : 2C + 2NO 2 = 2CO 2 + N 2.However, this does not affect previously produced soot, as in locally offered particulate filter of this series. The unoxidized nitrogen dioxide escapes.
For nitrogen oxide reduction, these engines use exhaust gas recirculation . This transfers up to 60% of the exhaust gas back into the intake tract in the partial load range; for the correct level, a lambda probe indicates the residual oxygen content in the exhaust gas flow. The recirculation lowers the combustion temperature and thus the nitrogen oxide production. The nitrogen oxides already present in the exhaust gas are also reduced by the new firing process, as well as soot particles and unburned hydrocarbons (eg PAHs)). However, if too much exhaust gas is introduced, there is a lack of oxygen in the cylinder for complete combustion. That resulted in more soot. Therefore, the only partial exhaust gas recirculation is only possible in the partial load range and is cooled (except for the 102-horsepower engine) to achieve a denser volume and thus provide enough oxygen. In the exhaust emission standards Euro 3 (102 hp) and Euro 4 (all others) achieved by this series, the permitted amount of nitrogen oxide remains at three times that of a gasoline engine. Nitrogen oxides promote smog and ozone formation as well as acid rain , nitrogen dioxideis irritating. Diesel engines use soot reduction with excess oxygen, which leads to locally very high temperatures in the cylinder. These promote nitric oxide formation. The feedback is done here without electrical control or cooling, as they came in the second series.
Particulate filter retrofitting of the series may result in obtaining a better particulate plaque. Information on the respective vehicle offers the page Feinstaubplakette.dethe associations TÜV and Dekra. Hyundai / KIA offers corresponding open filters function and efficiency of open filter systems shows this dossier by manufacturer .
All engines in the series have a turbocharger . This promotes more oxygen in the cylinder chamber, as would normally flow, whereby the engine can add more fuel. As a result, the performance increases to that of a larger displacement, the capacity can be provided by means of motor control even at low speeds. Thus, and by the smaller displacement friction losses are reduced, whereby the fuel consumption is below that of a turbocharger larger engine. The first series uses a Garrett GT 1544V for all four and one GT1541V for the three-cylinder in the series. Both have variable turbine geometry (VTG). In this case, rotatable guide vanes in front of the turbine wheel, depending on the exhaust gas flow rate and the setpoint boost pressure, produce the respective optimum flow cross section and inflow angle. This allows the turbine to operate at high efficiencies in a wider operating range, thereby reducing, inter alia, the delay in boost pressure build-up after depression of the accelerator pedal ("turbo lag"). The VTG vanes are mounted as on a bucket wheel and extend into the exhaust stream. You steer (almost folded to the circle) faster or (unfolded) slower exhaust gas to the turbine of the turbocharger . This accelerates or slows down accordingly The latter is used at higher engine speeds, since there is hardly any need for more air. On the contrary, this would exceed the intended pressure in the cylinder and thus mechanically damage the engine components. Therefore, as with this engine, the VGT control usually makes the overpressure valve ( wastegate ) unvariable turbocharger superfluous.
The 1.1-l three-cylinder contained by the end of 2006 materials in the gearbox, which led to its premature wear. The engine was previously used only in the KIA Picanto. The end of 2006 modified transmission with harder materials is according to a journal article not used in affected vehicles. For vehicles with the new transmission, there are no problem reports.
For some 1.6-lU engines in the KIA cee'd, which were produced from the model beginning in 2006 to 7 July 2009, a new control software is available. It reduces the maximum speed of the turbocharger to avoid mechanical and thermal peak loads. The performance does not decrease, but for the same propulsion the (electronic) gas pedal has to be pushed a little further. The original software allowed too high speeds, which favor a turbocharger failure. The resulting material particles would cause consequential damage in the injection system. From both failures, however, the drivers do not report. The new software was released in the spring of 2010 and recorded during workshop visits. On October 29, 2010, she received an update, which is recorded again at the next workshop visit.
|series||engine code||Displacement (cm³)||Stroke × bore (mm)||Power (PS) at (1 / min)||Torque (Nm) at (1 / min)||cylinder||compression||charging||injection||Particle filter|
|U||D3FA||1120||84.5 × 75||75 at 4000||153 at 1900-2750||3||17.8||VNT Turbo||CRDI
|U||D3FA||1120||84.5 × 75||75 at 4000||180 at 1750-2500||3||17.8||VNT Turbo||CRDI
|U||D4FA||1493||84.5 × 75||102 at 4000||235 at 2000||4||17.8||VNT / VGT turbo||CRDI
|U||D4FA-L||1493||84.5 × 75||79/88 at 4000||170/215 at 1900-2500||4||17.8||VNT Turbo||CRDI
|U||D4FA||1493||84.5 × 75||110 at 4000||235 at 1900-2750||4||17.8||VNT Turbo||CRDI
|U||D4FB-L||1582||84.5 × 77.2||90 at 4000||235 at 1750-2500||4||17.3||VNT Turbo||CRDI
|U||D4FB||1582||84.5 × 77.2||116 at 4000||255 at 1900-2750||4||17.3||VNT Turbo||CRDI
Listed are the world's built-U motors for each model, not all countries are listed in all configurations listed.
- Accent MC
- D4FA (110 hp, U series): 2005-2011 (vehicle in Europe replaced by the i20 in 2009 )
- Elantra XD2
- D4FB (116 hp, U series): 2006
- Elantra HD
- D4FB (116 hp, U series): 2008 to today
- Getz TB
- D4FA (102 hp, U series): 2004-2005
- D4FA (88 hp, 110 hp, U series): 2005 to today
- i10 PA
- D3FA (75 hp, U series): 2007-2010 (removed in the course of the facelift)
- i20 PB
- D3FA (75 hp, U series): 2012 to today
- i30 FH (from Korea) / FDH (from the Czech Republic)
- D4FB (116 hp, U series): 2007-2009
- Matrix FC
- D4FA (102 hp, U series): 2004-2008
- D4FA (110 hp, U series): 2008-2010
- cee'd ED
- D4FB-L, D4FB (90, 116 hp, U series): 2006-2009
- Cerato LD
- D4FA-L, D4FA (78, 90, 102 hp, U series): 2005-2006
- D4FB (116 hp, U series): 2005-2008
- Forte TD
- D4FB (128 hp, U2 series): 2009 to today
- Picanto SA
- D3FA (75 hp, U series): 2005 to today
- Rio JB
- D4FA (79, 110 hp, U series): 2005-2011