Victoria-Werke AG history
Nuremberg , Germany 1900 to 1958
The two-wheeled brand Victoria was first founded in 1886 as "Frankenburger and Ottenstein Nuremberg", went in 1958 with the two-wheeler Union and ended in 1968 with the acquisition by Hercules . She was one of the pioneers of the Nuremberg motorcycle industry .
In 1886, Max Frankenburger and Max Ottenstein founded the company "Frankenburger und Ottenstein Nürnberg" in the Nuremberg suburb of Gleißhammer . First high wheels and so-called safety wheels were produced. In 1888, the thousandth Victoria bicycle left the production halls, and in 1893 the factory had 259 employees. In 1895 the company was renamed "Victoria Fahrradwerke AG, formerly Frankenburger and Ottenstein". The share capital was 1.5 million marks. When the construction of motorcycles began in 1899 , the name of the plant was changed to "Victoria Werke AG".
In 1896 there were the first bicycles with pneumatic tires , which were purchased by Dunlop. In 1900, the development of the first "Victoria Motor Car" was completed, which was awarded the "Golden Medal" at the former motor show exhibition in Nuremberg. The series production did not start yet, on request, however, individual copies were made for sale. In 1901 Victoria made the first motorcycles. These had 1.75 hp, a surface carburetor and a flat belt for power transmission. The oil had to be pumped regularly with a hand pump. The fork was unsprung and the bottom bracket of the bicycle frame was retained. As built-in engines were aggregates of Fafnir , FN , Cudell, Minerva and Zedel .
1904/1905 created with a front-mounted two-lane "sidecar" tricycles on the basis of the motorcycle. In addition, now also officially produced automobiles . The famous "Doctors Cabriolet", the "small motor luggage car"; However, the "two-seater" and the "six-seater sedan" had little success and were only manufactured until 1912. In 1906, the first two-cylinder motorcycles with 2.5 to 3 hp were available. Like the first models, they were started with pedals or with a crank.
The Victoria Models from 1920 to 1939
After the First World War, production started in 1920 with the most modern motorcycle of its time, the "KR I". She had a SV -Zweizylinder boxer engine ( "M II B 15") of BMW, 494 cc, two gears, 6.5 hp, and the first telescope-like front fork.
With the outbreak of World War II in 1939 ended almost the entire two-wheeler production; only the "KR 35 Pioneer" was still produced. The "Riedel-starter," one of Norbert Riedel constructed two-cylinder two-stroke - Boxer engine with extremely short stroke, which as a starter for the jet engines Junkers Jumo 004 and BMW 003 was used was produced during the war in Victoria. The air raids on Nuremberg destroyed the factory as far as possible, so that in 1945 only a small part of the production facilities was available.
The post-war production began - after bridging production of commodities such as food processors, milk cans and tobacco cutters - end of 1946 with a bicycle auxiliary engine, the "FM 38" with flat-piston and inlet rotary valve, which had a capacity of 38 cc about 1 hp rated power; the FM 38 was the basis of
In 1951, Georg Dotterweich set a new world record of 79 km / h with an "FM 38" engine on the Munich-Ingolstadt motorway. The "KR 25 Aero" was now additionally available with "Jurich-Geradeweghinterradfederung", and the further developed model "KR 25 HM Aero" with the high-performance engine was added. In addition, the production of sophisticated sewing machines began.
As early as 1956, Bayerische Autowerke GmbH in Traunreut , founded by Victoria Zweirad Werke and Maschinenfabrik Friedrich , launched the miniature " Spatz 200 ", a roadster with a plastic body, to counter the crisis in the two-wheeler industry. Sales were handled by the Victoria dealer network. Initially, the sparrow had a 4-speed 191 cc F & S engine, then a blower-cooled 250 cc VICTORIA two-stroke engine with a Peggy and swing-type five-gear electromagnetic gearing. This stronger version bore the name " Victoria 250"And was built in Nuremberg. Despite its attractive shape, the small car found only a few buyers, so production was stopped in February 1958. 1588 "Spatz 200" and "Victoria 250" were produced.
In 1958, the sales figures dropped dramatically throughout Germany, which could not be compensated by the moped models at Victoria. Therefore, Victoria merged, the Express-Werke (Neumarkt) and the DKW -Zweiradfertigung of Auto-Union GmbH (Ingolstadt) to Zweirad Union AG. Victoria brought his "Vicky" moped line, Express his "Radexi" and DKW his good name, as well as the DKW Hummel, into the new company. Since from then on, however, no "motorcycle people" belonged to the management, but simply was only produced, which could be better sold, Victoria has since been no more classic motorcycle manufacturer.
In 1966, the Zweirad Union was formally taken over by the Nuremberg Hercules Werke GmbH , whereby the name "Victoria" finally disappeared from the price lists of motorcycle dealers.
Sparrow/Victoria 250 car
Production period: 1956-1958
Class : microcars
Body versions : Roadster
Gasoline engines : 0.2-0.25 liters
Length: 3300-3360 mm
Width: 1400-1450 mm
Height: 1240 mm
Wheelbase : 1950 mm
Curb weight : 290-425 kg
The sparrow and the further developed model Victoria 250 are miniature cars of the Bavarian Autowerke GmbH in Traunreut and the Victoria Werke AG in Nuremberg . In 1588 the small roadster with plastic bodywork was built from 1956 to 1958 (859 "Sparrow", 729 "Victoria 250").
The racing driver and designer Egon Brütsch († 1988) was a pioneer in the construction of plastic bodies. His ambition was to work without costly sheet metal presses and produce vehicles that are lighter than those with conventional superstructures. In 1954 Brütsch developed the "Spatz", a three-wheeled mobile with a self-supporting plastic body. The suspensions of the front wheels and the rear wheel were attached directly to the body shell.
Harald Friedrich , Managing Partner of Alzmetall P. Meier & Friedrich GmbH in Altenmarkt an der Alz , acquired the license to build the "Spatz" and founded the "Bayerische Autowerke GmbH" (BAG) in July 1956 with the Victoria works as partner. Previously, Friedrich had tried the "sparrow". Test rides on rough roads showed that the forces acting directly on the body via the wheel suspension led to cracks.
Friedrich commissioned the then 77-year-old Hans Ledwinka , formerly Tatra designer, to construct a stable chassis for the "sparrow". The result was a central tube frame and four wheels - unlike Brütsch's three-wheeled original. Friedrich was then no longer obliged to pay royalties to Brütsch, which led to a lawsuit that Friedrich won. The judges considered it proven that Brütsch's construction was unfit for traffic.
The fiberglass reinforced polyester resin molded open body is bolted to the frame. It has no doors and offers three people side by side on a bench seat, which according to the then advertising "quite comfortable" sitting. As weather protection, there was either a fabric folding top or a hard top with hinged doors. Under the front hood is a small trunk. Engine and gearbox are mounted transversely behind the driver's seat and in front of the rear axle ( middle engine ); behind it (at the "sparrow" in a slightly higher position) the tank is attached.
The first vehicles had a single-cylinder two-stroke engine from Fichtel & Sachs with a capacity of 191 cc and 10 hp (7.4 kW), which proved to be too weak, despite the low curb weight. Therefore, Victoria designer Richard Loukota developed a 250 cc single-cylinder two-stroke engine with 14 hp (10 kW) and, in cooperation with a gear manufacturer, an electromagnetically-shifted five-speed gearbox to match the engine instead of the original four-speed gearbox. The revised "sparrow" with the new engine-gear unit was also slightly outwardly modified (including side hinged window), was renamed the "Victoria 250" and built in Nuremberg. Only the plastic shell of the body came from Traunreut,
The steering wheel circuit of the "sparrow" replaced Loukota by a preselection circuit. It is switched with three buttons to the right of the steering column: middle button idle, right button first gear, left button reverse gear. With a small lever above the keys, the other gears are preselected and switched by pedaling the clutch.
Despite interesting design features, the sales success of the "sparrow" and the "Victoria 250" was low, so that production was discontinued in February 1958. The reason for the inadequate demand is likely to have been the cumbersome and almost impossible entry into the car when the folding roof is closed. Added to this was the reputation of high fire hazard, after some vehicles had gone up in tests in flames.
After the end of production, the company Burgfalke in Obermurnthal wanted to continue the Victoria car from 1959 under the name "Burgfalke 250 export" continue, but made only a few specimens and otherwise took over only the spare parts supply for the 1956-1958 produced vehicles.