Fiat 132 car range and history
|Vehicle technical details|
|Production:||1972 to 1981|
|Total production:|| Italy: 652.947
|Body and chassis|
|Engine and Powertrain|
|Engine Type:||4 cylinders|
|Engine location:||longitudinal front|
|Transmission:||4-5 speed gearbox, 3-speed automatic|
|Tyres:||170 SR x 13 "or 175 SR x 13"|
|Weights and Dimensions|
|Weight:||1090 to 1230 k g|
The Fiat 132 is a 4-door sedan with longitudinal front engine and rear-wheel drive produced by FIAT from 1972 , which replaced the 125 model in the range.
The design of this model has its roots in 1965 (the 125 was born precisely to remedy the long design times of a new platform and car), and the car initially saw light with two engines: the 1600 (1592 cm³ , bore x stroke 80 x 79.2 mm, in normal and special outfitting) with 98 hp at 6000 rpm , capable of reaching 165 km / h ; the 1800 (1756 cm³, bore x stroke 84 x 79.2 mm, in the Special set up only) with 105 HP at 6000 rpm and maximum speed 170 km / h . The body was the daughter of the fashion of the seventies , characterized by the front with 4 lightsfront wheels and by the peculiarity, for the time, of the front windows without deflectors. The 132 is the first Fiat partially assembled by robots : some electric welders apply welding points to the bodywork .
A 4-speed gearbox was coupled to the engine the fifth gear,avaliable, on request), while an automatic three-speed planetary gearbox with hydraulic torque converter was offered as an option. The suspensionsfollow, albeit with slight modifications, the scheme already adopted by the 125: front transverse quadrilaterals with overlapping swinging arms, helical springs and double-acting coaxial hydraulic shock absorbers; rear axle with rigid axle with helical springs and double-acting coaxial hydraulic shock absorbers (instead of crossbows, like the ancestor) plus a pair of additional anchor rods. Stabilizer bar on the front to control lateral cornering, improving road holding at high speeds. Braking system discon all four wheels, with dual-circuit brake booster and braking corrector on the rear circuit.
The interior of the car is appropriate for the segment that Fiat wanted to occupy: that of the sedans of class and representation. The seats, large and very comfortable, are made of imitation leather or moth-treated cloth, matching the door panels, rich, moreover, of showy chrome. The floor is carpeted, while the pavilion is made of synthetic perforated material. The dashboard presents inserts pretend briar and encloses in itself a very complete circular instrumentation (Vigil Borletti): speedometer , tachometer electronic (optional), level indicators petrol and temperature of ' water , clock and pressureof the oil (optional). The steering wheel is two-spoke, offset from the center (to allow better visibility of the instrumentation), and is with adjustable inclination; it is equipped with a collapsible safety steering column : in the event of a traffic accident it folds up into three parts and does not penetrate the passenger compartment, putting the driver's chest at risk. Still on the subject of safety, further measures are adopted, such as the differentiated body structure with controlled absorption of impact forces and the reinforcement of the doors with boxed steel sections, in order to preserve the occupants in the event of a side impact. The 132 was proposed in the normal versions (GL) andspecial (GLS): the cheaper, spartan and less sought-after normal version , and the special version which included a large number of optional extras. The main features, on request, are: 5-speed gearbox, automatic gearbox, self-locking differential, air conditioner, light alloy wheels, metallic paint, head restraints for front seats, heated rear window, athermal crystals and electronic ignition.
The first series was produced until 1974 and replaced by a second (1600 GL / GLS and 1800 GLS) which presented some of bodywork changes (new grille chrome, new side chrome friezes (only in GLS models), rear optical group plus), mechanics unchanged, except for a slight increase in power of the 1.8-liter engine, first to 107 hp and then to 111 hp (maximum speed unchanged at 170 km / h). The abbreviation GL meant "GranLuce": in fact the car had the lowered belt line, with a slight widening of the side windows, and the rear window rear enlarged towards the trunk. This change was necessary to increase the brightness of the passenger compartment and rear visibility, eliminating, however, the strip of connection in sheet between trunk and rear window, exposed to easy corrosion. In this regard, innovative measures were taken (for the time) to prevent corrosion: the plates underwent a chemical treatment based on zinc and manganese phosphates; the shell was immersed in anti-rust paint by electrophoresis. The underbody and the wheel arches were further sprayed with polyvinyl chloride, to protect them from the chemical and abrasive action of the deicing salt and road gravel; the wheels, particularly subject to corrosion, were treated with epoxy powders with a high protective thickness. THE' together with these updates, they made the car body more pleasant, sophisticated and durable. The 1.6-liter engine undergoes a slight reduction in displacement to 1585 cm³ (bore x stroke 84 x 71.5 mm), however its performance remains unchanged. The car now adopts"bar 70" lowered tires instead of the traditional ones of the time (corresponding to the current "80 bar"). In the second series of the 132 takes place the definitive replacement of the double shaft motors with a bore of 80 mm with the bore units 84 mm, always double shaft, therefore with a shorter stroke for the 1.6 and 1.8 liters. It also allows the future realization of a "2 liters". The various volumes are obtained, for the same bore, using crankshafts with a stroke of 71.5 or 79.2 mm.
A third series made its appearance in 1977 : the grille was still retouched by bringing it closer to that of the initial model, bumper strips were added on the sides and new (and striking) wheel circles were designed , nicknamed "four-leaf clover", with a diameter of 14 inchesinstead of the 13 inches of the previous series. The most striking change was that made to the bumpers, which were made, according to the Fiat style of the time, in resin with metal armor. Several modifications and strengthening inside the body increased the already good level of safety of the car. The interiors made a quantum leap with the adoption of new upholstery on a pleasant velvet, the front seats were larger with standard head restraints and a rigid core on the inside (so the back of those sitting in front could not feel any knees of the taller rear passengers). A new dashboard with square instrumentation and a new pavilion were adopted, which had the particularity of the 4 retractable sun visors (2 side and 2 on the windshield). Standard front electric windows. The engines also underwent an upgrade: the 1.8-liter version disappeared, replaced by an engine, again derived from theFiat crankshaft , 1995 cm³, bore x stroke 84 x 90 mm, delivering 112 HP at 5600 rpm, 170 km / h top speed. The smaller 1.6 liter engine is unchanged. 5-speed transmission as standard, with the option of automatic transmission. The House also gave the possibility, only for the year 2000, to choose the relationship to the bridge between two values: a "long" one to favor highway travel and a "short" one to favor acceleration and recovery instead . The braking system is modified: at the front, thanks to the adoption of the new wheels, the diameter of the discs is increased from 240 to 250 mm; at the rear the drums are adopted instead of discs.and the standard electric windows. The car now has the option of being equipped on request with high-performance tires such as Pirelli P6 and Michelin TRX, with lowered section "barra 60".
In May 1978 the diesel engine was added with 2,000 diesel engines (1995 cm³, 60 HP at 4400 rpm, 130 km / h) and 2,500 (2445 cm³, 72 HP at 4200 rpm, 145 km / h ), produced by Sofim of Foggia (subsequently adopted also by the commercial vehicles of Fiat, Peugeot and Citroën ). Always 5-speed transmission, power steering. The diesel versions are recognizable by the "hump" of the front bonnet, quite common in the diesel cars of the time.
The last evolution of the model was the introduction in 1979 of the 2000 engine with electronic fuel injection Bosch LE-Jetronic with 122 hp at 5300 rpm and a maximumspeed increased to 175 km / h, with significantly brighter performance than the 2000 a carburetor also due to the shortening of the gear ratios and the final report to the bridge, which was adopted "short" definitively. Slight improvement in consumption, also thanks to the new "Cut-Off" device capable of cutting the flow of fuel to the engine when the gas is released. The 2000 version with carburettor power supply remained in the price list.
The range of colors with which it was offered on the market, was composed, for the first series, by Fiat Red, Olive Green, Dark Blue, Metallic Evening Blue, Sahara Beige, Metallic Champagne, Black, Metallic Gray, Sail White and Brown Head of moro. For the second series, red oxide (cod.163), dark orange (cod.200), white (cod.233), champagne yellow (cod.238), lawn green (cod.336), green were available. clear (code 358), light blue metallized (code 400), dark blue (code 466), metallic Champagne (code 577) and metallized aluminum (code 620).
For the last years of production it remained the flagship of the Turin-based company following the withdrawal from the Fiat 130 catalog , and in May 1981 it came out of production replaced by the Argenta , its narrow derivation.
The model was also built in Spain in almost 110,000 examples from the then subsidiary SEAT and rebranded as SEAT 132 : available with the 1600 and 1800 engines of the first series, together with the 2000 version (actually 1919 cm³ effective for tax reasons). Also available were diesel engines of 2000 and 2200 cm³ (of Mercedes origin, practically the same units on models W 123) .
In Poland the Polski Fiat "manufactured" a number of Polski Fiat 132p, the same as the Italian original. In reality they were specimens imported from Italy practically complete and rebranded as if they were produced in the FSO factory in Warsaw in order to evade the considerable taxation on western production models. In Poland only a few pieces were mounted such as bumpers, tires, battery and identification logos .In South Africa the 132 was assembled in the seventies under license by Brits Engineering Industries (BEI), a subsidiary of Alfa Romeo , as Fiat had withdrawn from that market .In South Korea it was produced from 1979 by Kia Motors .
In the early 1970s the newly born 132 was the object of the attention of Giannini who prepared the "132-2000". The model develops 115 hp thanks to the increased displacement from 1756 to 1936 cm³, a higher compression ratio and the adoption of two double-body carburettors. Light alloy wheels, automatic gearboxes, anatomic seats and car radios were the main paid accessories.
The Moretti realized some specimens in coupe preparation in 1972, followed by a second version in 1974, characterized by an imposing front to 6 flanked headlights.
Many other prototypes of coupé or giardinetta outfitting on "132" chassis, made by various body builders, including Coggiola , Michelotti , Lombardi , Savio and Pininfarina , had no productive following.