Crossley Motors history
Manufacturer of automobiles. Manchester, England UK
Crossley is a former British manufacturer of automobiles , buses and other commercial vehicles since 1904 until the late 1950s.
The company Crossley Brothers Limited from Gorton near Manchester , later Errwood Park at Stockport ( Cheshire ), began in 1904 with the production of automobiles and commercial vehicles. Originally, Crossley Motors was the name of the division for the manufacture of motor vehicles, but in 1910 became an independent company, as the management recognized early on the developing sales opportunities for automobiles. Crossley Motors Limited was first registered as an independent company on April 11, 1906, and in 1910 it was re-registered with a new company number. Although Crossley MotorsInitially only car manufacturing, it developed during the First World War to an important supplier to the British commercial vehicle industry. In the 1920s, the company began producing buses. In 1920, the company acquired 68.5% of the shares in the nearby AV Roe and Company - also known as Avro - and took over the vehicle division of this company, while the development and production of aircraft remained with Avro as an independent company. However, in 1928 Crossley Motors had shares in Armstrong Siddeley sell to the losses resulting from the collaboration with Willys-Overland powered Willys Overland Crossley compensate.
In the course of the British armaments efforts in the interwar period, the production of passenger cars was throttled from 1930 and 1936 completely stopped. During the Second World War again mainly military vehicles were produced. Bus production continued until 1945, but no new models could be developed.
In the late 1940s, management rated Crossley Motors as unsustainable and eventually agreed to be taken over by the Associated Equipment Company (AEC). The production was finally discontinued in 1958. It was until 1952 still developed by Crossley Motors vehicles in stockport , while from that point to the production cessation vehicles were assembled by AEC. Despite cessation of production, the company was never formally dissolved. In 1969, the new owner of AEC, British Leyland , reactivated the company under the name Leyland National and had the same named bus produced in Stockport .
Over time, Crossley Motors produced approximately 19,000 passenger cars, 5,500 buses, and 21,000 trucks and military vehicles.
The manufacturing facilities were originally located at Crossley Brothers' parent plant in Openshaw , Manchester . In 1907, production was moved to Napier Street in Gorton , Manchester, the street was later renamed Crossley Street .
With the increase in production, however, the available space soon no longer sufficient, so that the company 1914 a larger area in Heaton Chapel, Stockport, acquired. The Errwood Park Works was built there . The construction of the new production facilities began in 1915. Although intended to relieve the old plant, the areas were initially used for the production of military equipment. In the western part of the site was created from 1917, the National Aircraft Factory no. 2 . After the war, Crossley Motors 1919 took over the production facilities and set up there the production plants of the Willys Overland Crossley . The work was in 1934 to the Fairey Aviation Companysold. The eastern part of the area was used by Fairey from 1938 for aircraft production. Only after the end of the Second World War, the site was the headquarters of Crossley Motors . Because of the arms production production in the Errwood Park Works could not be included, opened Crossley Motors 1938 in 4.8 km east Greencroft Mill at Hyde a new production facility.
The first car was developed in 1904 and presented at the Mondial de l'Automobile the following year . The success of this vehicle at the exhibition was the decisive factor in founding the company. The vehicle was initially produced in very small quantities, but after the opening of the new plant in Gorton, production increased sharply starting in 1909. This year also the 20 hp (later called 20/25) was introduced. The car was procured by the British War Office and used from 1913 at the Royal Flying Corps (RFC). With the outbreak of the First World War, production was expanded and, until 1918, more than 6,000 vehicles were manufactured as a staff vehicle, a lightweight traction device and ambulance. The type also came from 1920 at the newly establishedFlying Squad of the Metropolitan Police . For this purpose, some vehicles received a radio equipment.
The Crossley 25/30 hp was used as a crew car by the British Army from 1919 until its departure in 1922 in Northern Ireland. The Irish army took over the vehicles and used them during the civil war. Of the original 454 vehicles delivered, 1926 were still operational, with another 66 being overhauled or repaired.
1921 appeared with the 19.6 a new type, which was supplemented from 1922 by the smaller 14 hp with 2.4-liter displacement. This smaller car became the best selling model of the company. 1925 replaced the 18/50 with 2.7 liter displacement 19.6. The 18/50 was the first model of Crossley with a six-cylinder engine. In 20.9, which appeared in 1927, the engine capacity was increased to 3.2 liters. In 1933, Crossley was the first British manufacturer to offer a car with built-in radio. 1931, the company announced a new smaller series, which was equipped with engines from Coventry Climax , however, the production of passenger cars was slowly reduced due to falling sales figures. In 1937 the last cars were assembled at Crossley Motors.
In the late 1920s, because of the advent of mass production, the market for handmade cars became smaller and smaller. In the search for new sales markets, Crossley Motors turned first to the production of buses. 1928 appeared with the Eagle the first bus of the enterprise. Originally conceived as a monoplane bus, however , some chassis were also equipped with biplane superstructures. The Condor , released in 1930, was the first Crossley Motors specially designed biplane bus. The Condorwas also with a diesel engine of Gardnerdelivered and was thus the first British double-decker bus with diesel engine. The 1933 Mancunian was built both as a single and as a biplane. This guy was the best selling bus from Crossley Motors .
After the Second World War, the company continued to build one- and two-decker buses, which were based on the basically same chassis (SD = monoplane, DD = biplane). As before the war, a variant was offered as a trolleybus (TDD). Since war-related losses had to be compensated in Europe, the sales market grew strongly in the short term. The company won an invitation to tender from Nederlandse Spoorwegen , which has become the largest export business in the British bus industry with a volume of GBP 3 million . After a short time, however, the market shrank sharply, and Crossley Motors could no longer stand its ground as an independent company. After the takeover by AEC, the AEC became regentmounted at Crossley and fitted with the Crossley logo also sold as Crossley Regent .
Work on a new generation of buses had begun at Crossley as early as 1938. During a spa stay in Switzerland, the chief designer, WC Worrall, visited the production of Saurer and was able to visit the new diesel engine with direct injection there . Convinced of the advantages of this design principle, direct injection was adopted for the new HOE7 engine with an output of8.6 l. For the trial operation, two chassis were equipped with the new engines, a chassis received a modified construction of the Mancunian , the second a new body. The trials at the Manchester Corporationran satisfactorily. In 1944, government agencies allowed the production of 150 biplanes DD42 and 80 superstructures. Production of monoplane version SD42 was postponeduntil the end of the war. For the superstructures, the metal frame construction developed by Crossley was used again. A prototype of the new body was satisfactorily tested on the chassis of a Mancunian . The design closely followed the development started with the Streamliner .
After the end of the Second World War, production was discontinued at Aircraft Factory No 5 in Erwood Park . Crossley rented the area for ten years starting in September 1946 and relocated production there completely from January 1947, with the old plant in Gorton being sold. However, the production of the DD42 was still started in 1946 in Gorton . In that year, 93 buses were delivered. Altogether 1,114 DD42 were produced between 1945 and 1951 .
In practice, there were difficulties with the engine. As a result of a patent dispute with Saurer , the design of the cylinder head has been changed. As a result, performance dropped while fuel and oil consumption rose sharply. There were also thermal problems. After acquisition by AEC one came AEC - cylinder head for use, but the reputation of Crossley had been permanently damaged. The new chassis, on the other hand, had excellent properties even in practical operation.
The reason for the production of the SD42 was the order of the Dutch State Railways , which included the delivery of 425 buses for 43 seats each and a further 500 for each 47 seats. The smaller version was 32 feet 11 inches long, the larger 35 inches 2 feet long and 8 feet wide. Thus, the buses were significantly larger and in the case of the second execution also significantly wider than in the United Kingdom at the time allowed, which initially minimized the sales opportunities in the domestic market. The required top speed of 60 mph (just under 100 km / h) was also well above that allowed in the United Kingdom.
The delivery of the buses began in 1947. So that the larger and heavier bus reached the required, higher speeds, the engine was charged with unchanged displacement of two Roots blowers . As a result, the power increased from 100 bhp to 150 bhp (112 kW) at 1800 rpm . The new engine was called HOE9 . The engine was a manually switched to five-speed gearbox installed. In practice, the engine had problems with the oil supply, which is why some buses were back to the HOE7 . Instead of the vacuum brakes from Crossley, air brakes from Westinghouse came on the busesfor use. 150 of the buses delivered were equipped with Crossley, the rest were fitted with bodies from Dutch manufacturers. On some of these buses, the front access door was moved in front of the front axle, making the buses suitable for one-man operation.
The production for the domestic market started in 1947 with the SD42 / 3 initially only for municipal transport companies, later also for private operators of bus routes. Crossley had not served this market segment before World War II. A total of 620 of the 1680 built SD were sold to private operators.
In 1950, registration requirements were changed in the United Kingdom and the maximum length for buses increased to 30 feet. Crossley responded with a lengthened variant, however, the design with front engine was now outdated. The market demanded buses with underfloor engine , which offered a higher passenger capacity for the same length.
The PT42 was created in 1946 based on the DD42 chassis. He was a semitrailer bus . With its interpretation as Langhauber heoffered an unusual sight for British buses of the time. The tractor was a shortened chassis of the DD42 with a length of 17 feet 11 inches used. As engine, the HOE7 was installed, but with a modified cylinder head, which increased the performance of the engine. The bus was built as part of the order of the Dutch government. The tractors received at DAFtheir semi-trailers, while smaller companies took over the bodywork. A total of 250 vehicles were delivered. The semi-trailer accommodated 52 passengers sitting and 28 standing. By the beginning of the 1950s, however, the vehicles were already withdrawn from public transport and found to be mobile churches , meeting rooms, freight vehicles and the like. Some of the vehicles were sold to the GDR and used there by the SDAG bismuth until 1965 for the works traffic. Afterwards a part of the vehicles was fundamentally repaired. The semi-trailers were rebuilt, as a tractor IFA Z6S found a truckUse. The buses were then used primarily in the works traffic of larger companies in the Dresden area or Halle / Leipzig.
For Crossley, the bus was a transitional model until the start of bus production. Outside the Netherlands, he did not find new customers.
The enterprise resumed 1948 the production of trolleybuses again. 1950 appeared the three-axle TDD42 "Empire" with 26 feet in length. As before World War II, the bus was powered by Metro Vickers engines. In total, only 45 buses were built.
At the same time as TTD4 , the TDD64 "Dominion" appeared 30 feet long. It was powered by the same engine as the smaller version. From this execution 16 pieces were built.
The TSD42 was an export model that was only sold to New Zealand. The monkey bus with a length of 33 feet was based on the extended chassis of the SD42 . A total of 14 buses were built.
Crossley took advantage of its expertise and manufacturing capabilities and offered the design developed for the SD / DD42 to other customers as well. From 1945 Leyland PD1 and AEC Regal were provided with superstructures of Crossley. After the takeover by AEC, the AEC Regent was mounted at Crossley and distributed in the so-called badge engineering as Crossley Regent .
The bodies manufactured by Crossley were considered high quality but expensive. Between 1945 and 1958, the company produced a total of 1,122 superstructures for chassis from other manufacturers.
In 1962 both ACV and AEC became part of Leyland , but as a company Crossley was never fully wound up and removed from the business register, and legally it continued. Leyland took advantage of this fact when in 1969 the Leyland National was to be put into production. This bus was intended as a replacement for all monoplane buses manufactured to date in the group. Leyland reactivated Crossley Motors , renamed the company Leyland National and had 1972 built a total of 7700 buses in Workington.
In addition to the production range, Crossley Motors also manufactured commercial vehicles. Initially, these were based on modified passenger car chassis. Two built on the basis of the 25/30 truck drove in 1926 during the Court Treatt expedition from Cape Town to Cairo . 1923, the company launched the BTG1 , the first specially designed chassis for trucks. In 1931, the company announced a series of heavy trucks with 12 tonnes payload. However, only a small number of the Atlas equipped with diesel engines was built as the company focused on buses and military vehicles. From the 1940 produced all-wheel drive FWD More than 10,000 pieces were produced.
As early as 1908, there was a scheme that would allow haulage companies to receive government subsidies if they operated vehicles designed to meet military requirements and made available within 72 hours during a state of emergency. The War Office Subsidy Specification No 3 set the level of subsidies for lorries with a payload of 30 cwt in 1923 at GBP 40 per vehicle per year. Crossley then developed a chassis that followed this specification. The chassis was designated BGT1 , the abbreviation for British Government Tender 1was standing. The vehicle was also known as 40/50 hp. For use was either the 4.5-l engine 25/30 or its drilled variant 30/70 with 5.2 l displacement. On roads, the maximum speed was given as 50 mph, although the requirements only required 25 mph. The payload was actually 40 cwt higher than the required 30 cwt. The price was £ 850, for electric lights and starters £ 50 was added.
Also in 1923, the Indian government issued a tender for a two-axle truck with 30 cwt payload, which should be used under the harsher conditions of the Indian subcontinent. Crossley developed the IGL , which here stands for the abbreviation for Indian Government Lorry . The basis was the chassis developed for the Russian export order, which was not put into production due to the revolution in Russia. The same engines were used as at the BGT . Equipped with a four-speed gearbox, the maximum speed of the truck was 30 mph.
When the War Department in 1925 with the tender 30C a truck with a payload of 30 cwt and the wheel formula required 6 × 4, Crossley extended the BGT1 and mounted a double rear axle. Although the vehicle did not go back to a tender issued by the Government of India, it was given the name IGL2 and the IGL subsequently became the IGL1 . The reliable 25/30 engine was installed. Instead of the double rear axle, some of these vehicles got a Kegresse chain drive. The Royal Air Force and the British Armybought a total of 115 vehicles, some came into the hands of civilian holders. So took George V a IGL2 on his Scottish estates. In 1927 the IGL2 got a modified BGT chassis and was called IGL2 series 2 . The engine was now optionally also the 30/70 used.
15cwt light 14hp
Since due to the military requirement profile of the IGL1 was too heavy for civilian operators, offered Crossley starting from 1927 with the 15cwt light 14hp a lighter two-axle execution.
20-30cwt light six
The lighter version of the IGL2 with the wheel formula 6x4 was offered as 20-30cwt light six from 1927. From him, the BGV1 was later .
15hp 15 / 20cwt
The grant system provided financial benefits for the freight forwarding companies but resulted in quite heavy vehicles due to the military requirements for the vehicles. From December, Crossley offered a lighter two-axle vehicle, the 15 hp, with a payload of 15 to 20 cwt. Mainly delivery vans were built. The same engine was used as with the 14 hp, but this time with four-speed gearbox. The chassis was similar as well, but the wheelbase was more than 12 inches larger at 10 feet 5 inches. Four-wheel brakes were standard equipment. The structure was made of wood and was also offered as an ambulance . Although not designed for military requirements, the War Department procuredSome vehicles that received a transmission with countershaft and so had eight gears. Also, some vehicles were delivered with a Kegressechain drive.
The Atlas was a heavy truck, introduced in 1931. It was supposed to be alpha , but this name was already used for a bus. With a wheelbase of 16 feet 7½ inches, it was offered for payloads between 6 and 12 tons. Initially equipped with the six-cylinder engine with 8.369 l capacity, he later got the VR6. The gearbox was a manually switched four-speed gearbox with countershaft used, so that eight gears were available. The chassis with two, optionally three axles for the heavier models was designed for cabs. The atlaswas considered a high quality vehicle, but was very expensive at 1440 GBP and could only be sold in small quantities. 1936, production was discontinued.
The 1933 released beta with a wheelbase of 12 feet 6 inches was designed for smaller payloads. Available as a two- or three-axle model, it was initially powered by the 6.1-liter VR-4 diesel engine. From 1936, the VR6 was optionally available. The gearbox was the four-speed gearbox already built in the IGL or the four-speed gearbox with countershaft known from the Atlas . The chassis was also designed for cabs. At £ 1,195, the beta was also one of the more expensive vehicles in the UK market.
The delta also appeared in 1933. It was offered as a front handlebar (wheelbase 24 feet), Kurzhauber (wheelbase 11 feet 6 inches) and tractor unit (wheelbase 10 feet). There was a choice of the 20760 gasoline engine and from 1935 the tractor , from 1936 all models of the VS4 22/48, a light diesel engine with 3,620 l displacement. As of this year, the 24/70, a four-cylinder gasoline engine with 4.155 l displacement was also offered as an option. As a gearbox, the four-speed and eight-speed gearboxes were also offered at Beta . The chassis was also offered as a substructure for buses, however, on this chassis was only a bus for Manchester Airport through the Manchester Cooperationprocured. The price was 425 GBP for the version with gasoline engine and 635 GBP for the diesel variant.
Crossley Vickers Armored Car
After the end of the First World War, there was a need for an armored wheeled vehicle in the British Army in India. The planned procurement of Rolls-Royce tank cars failed because they were too expensive and also showed insufficient performance in the field trial. Crossley offered an armored car based on the 1.5 ton chassis developed for Russia, and the chassis also became the unarmored IGLdeveloped. The field trials were successful, and a final test, in which the vehicle with 4 tons ballast 4000 miles covered, was successfully completed. As a result, 32 vehicles were ordered with Vickers bodies. The vehicles were given solid rubber tires to minimize the risk of tire damage on the bad Indian roads and off-road, but the off-road vehicles often sank to the axles due to the narrow tires. A total of 100 vehicles were delivered to India, two more vehicles to South Africa.
Vickers used the IGL from 1928 for an armored car, which was successfully exported. Japan took large quantities of the designated there as Dowa vehicle from, Argentina a smaller number. A three-axle version was delivered to Iraq.
The BGV was developed in 1926 as an enlarged version of the BGT . The payload has been raised to 30 cwt. In order to maintain the driving characteristics of the vehicle, he received a double rear axle. The vehicle was motorized with the 2.4-liter gasoline engine from the 14hp . Instead of the double rear axle, a Kegresse chain drive with rubber tracks was installed on some vehicles . The chassis was used for different military setups. The abbreviation BGV stood for British General Vehicle .
1928, the chassis of the IGL2 and the BGV were revised. The newer version was named BGV2 , the BGV became BGV1
Crossley Mk. I
From 1927 Crossley was involved in the development of a tanket . Weak armored and armed with machine guns, the vehicle had two men crew. The vehicles were intended for close support of the infantry. As chassis came the three-axle BGV with a Kegresse chain drive. The vehicle was supposed to drive backwards in use, with the track drive at the front and the steering axle at the rear. Off-road driving was good, but the track drive blew dust into the engine. Only two prototypes were built.
D2E1 / D2E2
The chassis of the BGV also formed the basis for the D2E1 . The rear axles were twice frosted. A chain could be placed on the wheels to improve off-road performance. The vehicle took in a crew of three men and was armed with a .303 machine gun. The armored construction came from the Royal Ordnance Factory . In 1931, the prototype came to Egypt for testing, which, however, was not very successful. Upon return, the prototype received a new tower with two .5-Fla-MG. The second prototype D2E2got a lower engine stem to improve the driver's view. The armor has also been redesigned. Five vehicles were built, which received a tower with Fla-MGs. In 1933 they came to Egypt, but this version was also considered unsuitable for desert warfare.
The Royal Air Force ordered three more vehicles for use in Aden. Two received a tower with Fla-MGs, the third, larger a normal tank turret and an additional MG next to the driver. All three vehicles got a radio equipment.
As part of the British armaments efforts in the interwar period, among other things, the number of squadrons of the Royal Air Force grew strong, which required a powerful truck for land-based vehicles. Crossley initially supplied more than 700 IGL3 with gasoline engine to the Royal Air Force. In 1935, the War Office wrote out a new truck with 3 to payload and the wheel formula 4x4, which should replace the three-axle IGL. In 1938 a prototype was ordered. The vehicle had independent suspension, the new 38/110 bus engine and a five-speed gearbox. The trials were successful, but the Royal Air Force called for a simpler built, easier-to-repair vehicle. The final draft, as FWD orFour Wheel Drive had a wheelbase of 11 feet. The independent suspension was abandoned. The powertrain of the biaxial IGL and the proven 30/70 engine were used. The vehicle was also referred to as Q or Quad ; however, this is not correct since Q designates the tender on the basis of which different vehicles of different manufacturers were created.
Immediately after the outbreak of war, the first 506 trucks and 228 recovery vehicles were ordered. After the British Expeditionary Force had to leave most of their equipment in France, another 700 vehicles were ordered. Deliveries began in July 1940, by the end of the year were delivered 800 FWD and 340 IGL . In 1943, the tractor was put into production and with the 30/100, which made 96 bhp, later 100 bhp, optionally installed a more powerful engine. The three versions produced differed in the engine and power transmission.
By 1945, 7406 trucks and 2836 tractors were delivered, the production output peaked at 200 vehicles a month. The cabs were built with mass by Crossley, but also by Mulliner , the bodies came from many different manufacturers, including Park Royal and English Electric .
The last military assignment Crossley was able to acquire in the 1950s. The British Army wrote a scout tank to replace the outdated AEC Mk 3 and Daimler Mk 2 . Alvis developed at this time the crew transport car Saracen . The Saracen's chassis was adapted for the Saladin and equipped with a turret with the new 76mm cannon that replaced the older two-pounders. Because of the critical development in Malaysia, the production of Saracen had priority over the development of Saladin . Because the work of Alviswas busy, the first six pre-production copies of Saladin were mounted in 1956 at Crossley. Two years later, the production of Saladin was recorded by Alvis .
4530 and 4950
3732 and 3817
12/14 HP and 14 HP
15.7 HP Silver
20.9 HP Golden
RE (Rear Engine)
10 HP Torquay
Six / Alpha
TDD42 Empire (trolleybus)
TDD64 Dominion (trolleybus)