Citroën D series engine
From 1955 to 1976
The D-series engine developed and produced by Citroën from 1955 to 1976. It is a four-stroke petrol internal combustion automobile engine with four lined in-line cylinders, cast iron block, water-cooled, fitted with a three-then five-bearing crankshaft, with lateral camshaft (with rocker arms), controlled by a timing chain , with an aluminum cylinder head , eight overhead valves,as fitted to the Citroën DS and ID.
The D series engine is derived from the engine that fitted the 11 HP version of the Citroën Traction. This engine was indeed retained much of its construction characteristics. The direction of rotation of this motor is anti-clockwise (distribution side). The 6-cylinder flat originally planned required an extension of time that the brand could not afford.
During 1954, the engineers therefore began a series of modifications on the old 1.9 liter block and thus gave birth to the range of D series engines. Deeply revised for the 1966 vintage (September 1965), it is again revised to become the M-series engine for the CX. The latter constitutes the ultimate development with, in particular, diesel variants .
D Series 1.9
All the engines of the DS and ID of this first generation feature a 3-bearing crankshaft and bore and stroke dimensions of 78 and 100 mm respectively , identical to the engines of the Traction Avant 11 hp. They do, however, have differences due to constant changes.
The different versions fitted to the DS 19 are:
- DS 1-03 (until 07/1959): cross-flow aluminum cylinder head with hemispherical combustion chambers, compression ratio 7.5: 1. Equipped with a Weber 24/30 DCLC double-barrel inverted carburetor (but in some cases, a Zenith EEAC 24/30), it delivers 75 hp at 4500 rpm and a maximum torque of 137 Nm at 3000 rpm. Clutch control pump.
- DS 1-03b (07 / 1959-09 / 1960): ditto DS 1-03 except intake manifold integrated into the cylinder head and therefore new foundry thereof.
- DS 1-03c (09 / 1960-03 / 1961): same as DS 1-03b except centrifugal clutch regulator.
- DS 1-03f (03 / 1961-07 / 1961): same as DS 1-03c except adoption of domed pistons, compression ratio of 8.5 to 1, new double barrel carburetor and addition of a damper. 83 horsepower at 4,500 rpm and torque of 14.5 mkg at 3,500 rpm.
- DS 1-03e (07 / 1961-09 / 1965): idem DS 1-03f except engine block idem DM 1-03b and following.
- DW 1-03a (03 / 1963-09 / 1965): same as DS 1-03e except hydraulic clutch control. Also fitted to the ID 19 6 ice creams (all types).
The different versions fitted to the ID 19-6 are:
- DA 1-03 (until 07/1961): fitted to the ID 19 Ambulance, with socket for thermometric probe, engine block idem DM 1-03b and following from January 1961.
- DF 1-03 (until 07/1961): fitted to the ID 19 Break-Commerciale-Familiale, with heating plug tube, engine block idem DM 1-03b and following from January 1961.
- DA 1-03a (07 / 1961-03 / 1963): fitted to the ID 19 Ambulance, with socket for thermometric probe.
- DF 1-03a (07 / 1961-03 / 1963): equips the ID 19 Estate-Commercial-Family with heating plug tube.
The different versions fitted to the ID 19 sedan and convertible are:
- DM 1-03 : engine designed specifically for the ID 19 Normal, the entry-level ID saloon, with cylinder head identical to the Traction Avant 11 D of 1955. The compression ratio is 6.8: 1. of 62 hp at 4000 rpm, while the torque is 124.6 Nm at 2500 rpm.
- DM 1-03a (until 02/1960): alloy cylinder head with hemispherical combustion chamber with water intake (heating) at the rear. Compression ratio of 7: 1, power of 66 hp at 4,500 rpm and torque of 132.4 Nm at 3,000 rpm. This engine introduced inMay 1957 equips the ID 19 Luxury and Comfort sedan.
- DM 1-03b (02 / 1960-07 / 1961): same as DM 1-03a except water intake (heating) on the side.
- DM 1-03e (07 / 1961-09 / 1964): same as DM 1-03b except new camshaft.
- DM 1-03f (07 / 1961-09 / 1964): ID 19 Cabriolet only, same as DS 1-03e except single barrel carburetor.
- DM 1-03g (09 / 1964-09 / 1965): ID 19 Luxury and Comfort sedan only, same as DM 1-03f except flat pistons. Compression ratio of 7.5: 1, power of 75 hp SAE at 4500 rpm (70 DIN) and torque of 140 Nm at 3000 rpm.
- DE 1-03 (09 / 1965-01 / 1966): ID 19 P Luxury and Comfort sedan, same as DM 1-03e except double barrel carburetor. Power of 81 hp at 4,750 rpm and torque of 140 Nm at 3,500 rpm.
- DE 1-03c (01 / 1966-09 / 1966): idem DE 1-03 except antipollution device.
D Series 2.0
Introduced in 1965, the 2.0 liter offers significant improvements: first, the cylinders are very different from a dimensional point of view, furthermore the bore and stroke have been increased to 86 and 85.5 mm . This results in an increase in displacement which reaches 1 985 cm 3 . The major change is the crankshaft with five bearings, instead of three. The ignition became single coil and the circuit breaker, while in 1.9 was double coil and breaker. Initially, the 300 W dynamo (520 Wreplaced by an alternator since 1967). A 24/30 double-barrel carburetor is adopted, already fitted in 1.9 more efficient. Six variations exist. Three of them, marked with the letters DY, found application on both DS models, the two identity models, is still on station wagon models (often seen as a hybrid between the first two, but with the bodywork family). The other three options are marked with the letters DV and have only been fitted to ID models:
- DY : DY identifies the first 2 liters of series D in chronological order: it is characterized by a compression ratio equal to 8.75: 1 and a maximum power of 90 hp at 5,250 rpm (the shortened stroke helps to increase the speed of the engine in which maximum performance is obtained), the maximum torque is 146 Nm at 3,000 rpm .
- DY2 : InOctober 1968, the DY 2 liters evolves, thus becoming the DY2 engine. The compression ratio is unchanged, but thanks to a few changes the power is 103 hp SAE at 5,500 rpm , while the maximum torque has been increased to 149 Nm at 3,400 rpm .
- DY3 : DY3 is in turn an evolution of DY2. Power reaches 108 SAE hp at 5,500 rpm , while maximum torque at 4,000 rpm is 152 Nm.
- DV : DV engine, always from 1985 cm 3 , was introduced inSeptember 1966, and fitted the ID19 produced precisely from September 1966 at September 1968. Among the characteristics of this engine were the compression ratio equal to 8: 1, but also the maximum power of 84 hp at 5,250 rpm and the maximum torque of 144 Nm at 3,000 rpm .
- DV2 : InOctober 1968, the DV engine has been replaced by the DV2 engine: same compression ratio, the power increases to 91 hp at 5,750 rpm , while the maximum torque reaches 146 Nm at 4,000 rpm .
- DV3 : Inseptember 1971, the DV3 replaces the DV2, the compression ratio has been increased by 8.75: 1. Therefore, the maximum power is 98 hp at 5,500 rpm , while the maximum torque is 147 Nm at 3,000 rpm .
Series D 2.1
Commercially named 2.1 liters, it is actually a 2.2 liters. This engine is introduced in October 1965, and was born from reboring of the 2 liters. Here, the cylinder bore is reduced from 86 to 90 mm , while the stroke remains unchanged. The result is an increased displacement to 2175 cm 3 . This engine was born with a carburetor, was then developed and offered with electronic injection. The ignition was initially entrusted to a 12 volt electrical system with a 400 W alternator . In 1967, the generator proceeds to 520 W . This engine came in three variations, which are briefly described below:
- DX : is the first variant in chronological order, this one is introduced at the end of 1965. With a compression ratio equal to 8.75: 1, it is equipped with a Weber 28/36 DDE2E double-barrel inverted carburetor developing a maximum power of 109 hp at 5500 rpm, with a maximum torque of 173.6 Nm at 3000 rpm.
- DX2 : Launched inOctober 1968 to coincide with the launch of the second series of DS / ID ranges, the DX2 engine is characterized by a maximum output of 115 hp at 5,750 rpm.
- DX3 : This is the variant with electronic fuel injection, with Bosch system. Among other features: the compression ratio drops to 9: 1, the maximum power of 139 hp at 5,250 rpm and the maximum torque of 196 Nm at 4,000 rpm.
Series D 2.3
The 2.3 liter version was introduced inAugust 1972, replacing the 2.1 liter. It was born by the continuation of the reboring of the cylinders which passes from 90 to 93.5 mm , while the stroke again remains unchanged. This gives a displacement of 2,347 cm 3 , available in two variants, one with carburetor and the other with electronic injection. This is the biggest evolution of the D-series engine. Both variants ceased to be produced inMay 1975. Among other things, the history of this version does not end with the end of the D-Series engine, but will continue for a few years under the name of M23 engine , which in practice with some modifications and updates will be mounted on the replacement for the Citroën DS, namely the Citroën CX .
The two variants:
- DX4 : is the Weber 28/36 DDE2 double-barrel carburettor version. This version is brought to replace the DX2, namely the 2.1 liter carbureted 115 hp, and is characterized by a compression ratio equal to 8.75: 1. The maximum power of this engine is 124 hp at 5750 rpm, and maximum torque is 187.3 Nm at 3500 rpm.
- DX5 : this acronym identifies the version with electronic fuel injection. This version will replace the DX3. Like the latter, the fuel system is Bosch injection. The compression ratio has been increased to 9: 1, with a maximum power of 141 SAE hp at 5500 rpm and a maximum torque of 201 Nm at 3500 rpm .